Old Antique Maps of Barbados 1500-1900

Old Antique Maps of Barbados 1500-1900


The Printed Maps of Barbados, described by Tony Campbell and illustrated, was published (one year prior to Barbados Independence) in 1965  by The Map Collectors’ Circle, Durrant House, Chiswell Street, London EC1.  It is no longer in print yet remains a valuable resource for historians, genealogists and map lovers.  Its scarcity, yet significance, became the motivation for this project.

The Printed Maps of Barbados 1500 -1900  weaves together, in their own words, the work of three authors and researchers: E. M. Shilstone, Tony Campbell and Alan Moss.

E. M. Shilstone had published A Descriptive List of Barbados Maps in 1938 in the fifth issue of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society (BMHS) Journal while Tony Campbell wrote and published “The Printed Maps of Barbados” in 1965, in issue No. 21 of the Map Collectors’ Circle magazine.

In 1993 and 1999 Alan Moss published in volumes XLI and XLV of the BMHS journal “Further Notes on The Printed Maps of Barbados”.

Reference # (Numbers): 

Map images from Campbell’s original book have a Plate # and reference No. #.   Additional  maps, which Campbell described and for which we’ve now added an image have a reference No. # only.   The reference # correlates to the map description which are listed chronologically.  

Maps referenced by Shilstone, in 1938, but not included in Campbell’s book have been added with a reference # beginning with “S”. eg. S20 would have been the 20th map on Shilstone’s list. All maps post 1873 are from Shilstone’s work.  

As Moss intended that his work, written 30 years after Campbell, be read in conjunction with Campbell’s work, it has been added, in a shaded box, to the referenced map.  

Maps without a plate or reference # have been added and inserted chronologically by Jim Webster in 2020 and denoted with a W.

Coloured Maps:

Prior to the 19th century maps were printed in black and white.  In some instances hand colouring was added, after the printing, to enhance readability and appearance.  If colouring was done, soon after printing, it was called original or contemporary colour. Colours added later were referred to as modern colour.

Laws of Cartobibliography:

  1.  Each printed map is an impression made by the transfer of ink from a unique printing platform or group of platforms (usually woodblock, copper plate or lithographic stone).
  2. The piece of paper we are looking at is no more than a reflection, literally a mirror-image, of a wooden, metal or stone printing platform, which was present in a particular workshop at a particular time.

The cartobibliographer’s primary task is to recount the life history of a printing platform—the intentional and accidental changes made to it—by attempting to place in order a series of impressions pulled from it. – Tony Campbell “Understanding Engraved Maps

Our thanks to Tony Campbell for supporting this transcription effort and for giving permission to re-publish “The Printed Maps of Barbados”  which forms the basis for this paper.  You can follow Tony Campbell on Twitter: @portolanchart01.

Tony Campbell is an independent researcher who, for many years has been studying portolan charts. From 1987-2001 he was the Map Librarian at The British Library and is the chair of Imago Mundi Ltd, which has responsibility for Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography and for the coordination of International Conferences on the History of Cartography. We were able to contact Tony in 2018 to learn more about his work and the Barbados map project. He says:

..working up the carto-bibliography of Barbados was my very first foray into map history, done just a few months after I joined the firm of Francis Edwards Ltd, working with R.V. Tooley (author of Maps and Map-makers). The possibilities became immediately apparent when I pulled out the scores of maps of Barbados in the West Indies folder. That enabled me to sort out the different map ‘plates’, and the ‘states’, i.e. altered forms of each, especially of the small Moll maps. If you want to delve into that a bit you might find my article, “Understanding engraved maps“, a useful reference.

“I’m pleased that BajanThings has offered their support in making this work more readily available”.
Jim Webster  – 15th February 2020.

 

MAPS OF BARBADOS

Chronologically Listed

W 1516 MAGGIOLO (VESCONTE)
Portolan Chart 102 x 155 cm on parchment skin.

World chart, from eastern coasts of America to India. Red border at top edged by black band that continues around left side, no borders on bottom or right. Black and red ink for nomenclature in a minuscule hand with area names in gothic script; American coast, Scotland, and England outlined in color (very faded), other land masses in black ink only; 10 compass roses with usual 32 rhumb line network in black, red and green ink for the principal directions; latitude scale numbered from 40° S to 67° N, no longitude; four unnumbered scales of distance; decorated with imaginary animals, kings in pavilions, vignettes of cities, banners, three wind-heads, and a large medallion of the Virgin and Child. Unbound: formerly rolled, now flattened and kept in a modern case. Inscribed “Vesconte de Maiollo ianuense,” Naples, 7 May 1516.

MAGGIOLO (Vesconte) 1516
My Old Maps

 

W  1569 MERCATOR (GERARDUS) Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata (Latin for “New and more complete representation of the terrestrial globe properly adapted for use in navigation”). 1 roll of 18 assembled threads 200 x 133 cms.

Textual insert: Maranon fluvius inventus fuit a Vincentio Yanez Pincon an: 1499, et an: 1542 totus a foutibus fere, ad ostia usque navigatus a Francisco Oregliana leucis 1660, mensibus 8, dulces in mari servat aquas usque ad 40 leucas. (The River Maranon was discovered by Vicente Yanez Pincon in 1499, and in 1542 it was descended in its entirety, almost from its sources to its mouth, by Francisco Oregliana, over a course of 1,660 leagues during 8 months. It maintains its sweet waters in the sea for 40 leagues from the coast.)

The land mass, east of Barbados, was drawn on a number of the early maps and was possibly copied from one to another.

MERCATOR (GERARDUS) 1569
Gallica
Wikipedia

 

MERCATOR (GERARDUS) 1569 – Detail showing Baruodos (Barbados)
Gallica
Wikipedia

Although Ligon’s map is often referenced as being the first separate map of Barbados, Barbados had begun to appear on Spanish and Portuguese maps, of the West Indies,  by the early 1500’s. 

 

W  1632 CARDONA (Nicolás) Isadel Barbado

Descripciones geográphicas e hydrográphicas de muchas tierras y mares del Norte y Sur en las Indias, en especial del descubrimiento del Reino de la California (Geographic and hydrographic descriptions of many northern and southern lands and seas in the Indies, specifically the discovery of the kingdom of California), written by captain Nicolás de Cardona after his expedition of 1614.

CARDONA (Nicolás) 1632
Wikimedia

 

W 1646 HAPCOTT (John) Fort Plantation

“This plott representeth the forme of three hundred acres of Land part of a Plantation called the Fort Plantation of which 300 acres Cap. Thos. Middleton of London hath purchased …”
This estate was surveyed on October 10, 1646, and drawn in the style of the Thames School sometime between 1647 and 1677. Fort Plantation, the subject of the survey, was in existence as early as 1631. This survey gives interesting indications of land use: “Fallen land” refers to areas cleared for agriculture, specifically sugar cane, and “Potato peece” indicates an important food source for the English. The legend refers to Mr. Wright’s plantation “taken too farr into this land” probably referring to encroachment by neighbours before all boundary lines were carefully surveyed. Saint James Church was built in 1628; St. James Anglican church still remains in the same location.

John Hapcott Plantation Map 1646

John Hapcott Plantation Map 1646

HAPCOTT (John) 1646
The JCB Library

 

1646 Hapcott map overlay on topographic map of Barbados

1646 Hapcott map overlay on topographic map of Barbados

The 1646 Hapcott map overlay on topographic map of Barbados (BSD 1986:5:OSD 218/1) Barbados Sheet 5, 1-OSD, 1988 St. James (Syracuse University Archaeological Research Center Collection), with locator map (compiled on ArcGIS 10.1 by Alan D. Armstrong). Hapcott map courtesy fo the John Carter Brown Library (JCB Map Collection; C-8210; Shelf Et647 1 Ms).

Douglas V. Armstrong & Matthew C. Reilly: The Archaeology of Settler Farms and Early Plantation Life in Seventeenth-Century Barbados published online: 01 Sep 2014.

 

1 1657 [LIGON (RICHARD)] A topographicall Description and Admeasurement of the Yland of Barbados in the West Indyaes with the Mrs. Names of the Seuerall plantacons. 51½   x 36½  cms.

ln: Ligon (R) A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbados, London, 1657, Second Edition 1673:

Richard Ligon set sail in the “last scene” of his life for Barbados via Cape Verde, “where we were to trade for Negroes, horses and cattle; which we were to sell at Barbadoes.” When he arrived in 1647 he found the island still overgrown with primaeval forest, which made penetration of the hinterland very difficult. At this time very little was known besides the coast-line and even about this there was considerable doubt as Ligon describes—“the length and breadth of this Island, I must deliver you only upon trust; for, I could not go my self about it, being full of other business; but I had some speech with the antientest, and most knowing Surveyer there, one Captain Swan, who told me that he once took an exact plot of the whole Island, but it was commanded out of his hands by the then Governour, Sir Henry Hunks, who carried it into England; since which time, neither himself, nor any other, to his knowledge, had taken any; nor did he believe, there was any extant.”

Despite this, Ligon’s map, the first separate map of the island (included to illustrate his book, which was written in the Upper Bench Prison where he was thrown for debt on his return to England in 1650) is in the main a faithful representation of the island’s outline, although it gives very little inland detail. The northern half is exaggerated at the expense of the south, but the main failing is in the scale. Captain Swan had found among his papers and passed on to Ligon his estimates of the island’s size, namely that it was 28 miles long and between 12 and 17 miles wide. However, while claiming to believe these figures, Ligon makes the island 32 miles long according to the scale of miles, which is a third more than its correct length.

The map’s main purpose is to show the plantations, which at this date were along the west and south coasts. Beside each name is a sign, somewhat like a rabbit hutch, to mark the approximate size of the estate. In the middle of the map appears the lettering, “the tenn Thousande Acres of Lande which Belongeth to the Merchants of London”, a reference to the land leased by Carlisle to a group of London merchants. Scattered about the inland are the figures of settlers (sometimes depicted in full armour on horseback) servants (criminals and others, often sold for 7-year terms) and negro slaves. The animal life is also illustrated; cows, pigs, sheep, asses, hogs and camels. Besides the hogs, which were there when the settlers arrived, the other animals had been brought to the Island, including the camels which were used as beasts of burden on the plantations.

The issue appearing in the 2nd edition (1673) is distinguished from the first (1657) by the names of a few additional coastal features, e.g. Fowle Bay, Long Bay, and Balises B. Only one further inland feature appears to have been identified, however, Io. Read’s plantation to the north of Speightstown. A. Moss

 

PLATE I (No. 1) LIGON (RICHARD) 1657 
The Newberry Library

 

(No. 1) LIGON (RICHARD) 1673 (2nd edition)
Leventhal Map Centre
British Library

 

2 1657-1674 [LIGON (RICHARD)] Description Topographique et mesure de l’isle des Barbades aux Indes Occidentalles avec les Noms de ceux a qui appartienent les habitations. 52 x 38 cms.

In: Ligon (R.) Histoire de l’lslc des Barbades; from, Justel ( H.) Recueil de divers Voyages faites en Afrique et en I’Amerique, Paris, I674.

Ligon’s map re~engraved with the same information but lacking all the decorative details, even the compass rose.

The imprint of Justin’s Receuil de divers voyages … is Paris: Chez Louis Billaine, …1674.

A second issue, Paris: La Veuve Ant. Cellier, 1684, also contained the map. Since Fowle Bay and Balises B. were named, the map can be deduced to have been copied from the second issue of the English edition. A. Moss

(No. 2) LIGON (RICHARD) 1674
Old WOrld Auctions

 

3 1670 OGILBY (JOHN) Novissima et Acuratissima Barbados Descriptio. 35½  x 29 cms.

In: Ogilby (1.) America, Being the latest and most accurate description of the New World, [London] 1670. Another issue 1671.

An outline map showing the coastal features but without any inland detail. Typical fauna is depicted, e.g. Pine Apple, sugar cane, cabbage tree, papaw, Beunawno, indian corn. In the centre is a vignette of a sugar mill. The map is not based on Ligon and there are many differences. The island’s length, according to the map’s scale has been reduced to 23 miles, and there is information additional to that on Ligon’s map. Ogilby was never on Barbados, and his sources for this map remain unknown.

Shilstone ascribes the map to a work by Ogilby entitled Atlas Americana (1671), but neither STC2, Katherine Van Eerde’s John Ogilby and the taste of his times, nor any of several other sources checked acknowledges the existence of an Ogilby work of this title. Despite differences in the sub-title also, therefore, we are compelled to assume that, like Campbell, Shilstone was referring to Ogilby’s America. 

Van Eerde and the John Carter Brown Library indicate that America was essentially an embellished translation of Arnoldus Montanus’ De nieuwe en onbekenade weereld (Amsterdam: Jacob Van Meurs, 1671), which in itself brings into question the accuracy of the 1670 publication date found on the title-page of the first issue of America. The John Carter Brown Library further notes that the map of Jamaica which is one of the three maps present in Ogilby but not in Montanus is dated 1671, and accordingly it ascribes to this issue a publication date of 1671.

In the above issue the final, unnumbered leaf of “Descriptions for placing the Whole-sheet prints in the Volume of America does not call for a map of Barbados, although the map is indeed present, located between pages 376 and 377. A modified description appears in two later issues in which the Barbados map is called for, at page 376.

Three issues of America bearing the date of 1671 on the title-page have been identified, all of them differentiated from the “1670” issue by changes in the sub-title and the imprint.  The sub-title of the “1670” issue begins: being the latest, and most accurate description of the new world; and the publisher statement of the “1670” issue reads: Printed for the Author.  In what is presumably the earliest of the issues the Barbados map is neither present nor called for in the “Description” leaf.  In the later two issues, the map of Barbados is called for in the “Description”, but in one case it is present while in the other it is not.  A. Moss

PLATE II (No. 3) OGILBY (JOHN) 1670
British Library Ogilby

 

4 1672 BLOME (RICHARD) A Mapp of the Island of Barbados Taken from the latest Survey By Ric. Blome 1672.   17 x 17½   cms.

In: Blome (R.) A Description of the Island of Jamaica with the other Isles and territories in America, to which the English are related. . Printed by T. Milbourn, and sold by the Book-sellers of London and Westminster, 1672 (NB. This map does not appear in an edition of the same year but with a different imprint).

Another edition: .l.P. for Dorman Newman 1678. French edition: Amsterdam 1688. The map is a copy of Ogilby.

The imprint given in Campbell for the 1678 edition of Blome’s work should be revised to: London: Printed by J.B. for Dorman Newman, 1678.

The “French edition: Amsterdam, 1688” referred to is in fact an edition of the later of Morden’s two maps (see 7, below).  A. Moss

(No. 4) BLOME (RICHARD) 1672
Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps

 

5 1676 SPEED (JOHN) Barbados.  T. Bassett & R. Chiswell. 50 x 19 cms.

In: Speed (J.) A Prospect of the most famous parts of the world, Bassett & Chiswell, London, 1676 (2 editions).

The Prospect first appeared in 1627 but the map of Barbados, on a sheet with Jamaica, was first included in this edition. The island’s outline is copied from Ogilby but the interior is dotted with trees and hills, that owe little to Ligon or geographical accuracy.

John Speed, historian and cartographer, died in 1629, thirty-seven years before the publication of the Barbados Map. Bassett and Chiswell copied Ogilby’s map, and included it in their 1676 edition or Speed’s Atlas. – Shilstone

Although Speed’s A Prospect of the most famous parts of the world bears its own title page and is separately paginated, it is usually encountered as the second part of his The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain… together with A Prospect of the most famous parts of the world. Printed instructions to the Binder found on the title-page of the John Carter Brown Library’s copy of the Prospect state that the title-page is to follow the final folio (146) of The Theatre, which indicates that the two were intended to be bound together as a single volume.

Campbell makes reference to two 1676 editions of Speed’s Prospect, but I have been unable to find a record of more than one edition, although there is evidence of more than one issue in that in some copies the co-publisher is given on the title-pages of both the Theatre and the Prospect as Chiswel, whereas in others it is spelled Chiswell, either on the Prospect’s title page or on both title-pages.

The map was also issued separately from The Prospect, for a copy in the British Library bound in A Collection of Maps of Great Britain and Ireland by J. Speed, unlike the copies found in The Prospect, has no text on the version of the map.  The imprint currently provided for the Collection by the British Library is T. Bassett and R. Chiswell: London (1666). It seems likely that this is the copy on which Shilstone based the entry at no. 7 in his list, which he dated to (1676?), presumably following the cataloguing of what was then the British museum.  A. Moss

 

PLATE III (No. 5) SPEED (JOHN) 1676
David Rumsey Map Collection

 

PLATE III (No. 5) SPEED (JOHN) 1676
Paulus Swaen

 

6 1676 SPEED (JOHN) Barbados. 12½  X 8½ cms.

In: An epitome of Mr. John Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain and his Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World. Tho. Basset & Ric.  Chiswel, 1676. The miniature Speed, first included in this edition.

No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist

7 [1680] MORDEN (Robert) The Island of Barbados by Robert Morden.  12 x 13 cms.

MORDEN (Robert) The Island of Barbados by Robert Morden.  12 x 13 cms.

In: Morden (R.) Geography rectified, 1680, 1688.

Another edition: with the addition of latitude and longitude data under the title, page no. (70) top right, more place and plantation names. This is entirely re-engraved .

In: Morden (R.) Geography rectified, 3rd & 4th edns. 1693, 1700.

In: Morden ( R.) Atlas Terrestris [1700].

In: Blome (R.) The Present state of His Majesties Isles and Territories in America, London 1687.

Campbell identifies two “editions” of Morden’s map, the earlier of which is said to appear in the 1st and 2nd editions (1680 and 1688) of Morden’s Geography rectified, with the later, “entirely re-engraved”, first appearing in the 3rd edition (1693) of that work. However, the revised version of the map, which as Campbell states is differentiated by the addition of latitude and longitude data under the title and more plantation and place names, in fact first appears in the 2nd edition of Geography rectified, although the further distinguishing feature of “Page 70” at top right is indeed not found until the 3rd edition.

The additional plantation and place names are all to be found in Richard Forde’s map of Barbados (see 8, below), a map generally regarded as providing a considerable advance upon earlier representations of the island, and Jeannette D. Black, in her account of the Forde map in her commentary on The Blathwayt Atlasé, goes so far as to describe Morden’s revision as “a reduction of Forde’s map”.  I would suggest, therefore, that the maps used by Morden are sufficiently different to merit being considered separate maps rather than two editions of the same map.

Campbell assigns a date of (1700) to Morden’s Atlas terrestrial, but the John Carter Brown Library ascribes its first appearance to “between May 1688 and November of 1692”, since the maps bear engraved page numbers which do not appear on the examples published in the 1688 edition of Geography rectified, but which are to be found on those in the 1693 edition, announced in the November 1692 Term catalogues.  The library also identifies a further issue of Atlas terrestrial appearing after May 1693 but before 1699.

The map appearing in Richard Blome’s The present state of His Majesties isles and territories in America (London: Printed by H. Clark for Dorman Newman, 1687), while clearly based on the later Morden and bearing his name in the cartouche, is from a plate other that that first used in the 2nd edition of Geography rectified, there being differences in the cartouche and in some of the place names.  As Black points out, the text of the first edition of Geography rectified had promised to show features on the Barbados map which were not in fact included until the second edition, which suggests that the revision of the map may well have been completed not long after the first edition went to press in 1680.  That it was possible for it to be copied and published in Blome’s 1687 work prior to its first appearance in a Morden publication is therefore not surprising.

As has been noted above, the map referred to as an Amsterdam published French edition of Blome (Campbell 4) is in fact an edition of the later Morden map.  The map, which is titled Ile des Barbades Par R. Morden and is lettered “p.36” at the top right, appeared in two issues of an anonymous French translation of Blome’s work which seem to be identical apart from their title-pages: L’Amerique anglaise, ou Description des isles et terries du Roi d’Angleterre dans l’Amerique (Amsterdam: Chez Abraham Wolfgang, 1688), and Description des isles et terries cue l’Angleterre possede en Amerique… Traduit de l’anglos (Amsterdam: Aux depend d’Estienne Roger, 1715)  A. Moss

 

PLATE IV (No. 7) MORDEN (ROBERT) 1680 (1st edition)
Barbados Property Search

 

PLATE IV (No. 7) MORDEN (ROBERT) 1688 (2nd edition)
Carib Map

 

Plate IV (No. 7) MORDEN (ROBERT) 1693 (3rd edition). There are differences, as described by Moss.
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

8 [1681] [FORD (RICHARD)] A New Map of the Island of Barbadoes wherein every Parish, Plantation, Watermill, Windmill & Cattlemill, is described with the name of the Present Possessor, and all things els Remarkable according to a Late Exact Survey thereof. This map is to be sold by Mr. Overton at the White Horse without Newgate Mr. Morden at the Atlas in Cornhill Mr. Berry at the Globe at Charing Cross and Mr. Pask at ye Stationers Arms & Inkbottle on the North Side the Royal Exchange. 56 x 48 cms.

This map shows the already extensive nature of sugar cultivation. There are symbols to depict the typical flora of the various parts of the island and in the bottom right “A New Description of the Island of Barbadoes”, containing statistical data within a decorative cartouche.

Richard Ford, Surveyor, obtained in 1675 the sole right to sell his “plot” of the island. However in the following year a General Order in Council instructed all Governors to send home maps of their plantations, an order which in this case was not obeyed until 1680. The suggested date of 1681 is given on the evidence that in June of that year the Governor, Sir Richard Dutton wrote: “The longitude and latitude of the Island is variously estimated ; no other admeasurement of this Island to be had than that of Richard Ford, a Surveyor, whose description is printed and sold in England”.

This is the first systematic map of the island. The general accuracy of the inland features testifies to the thoroughness of Ford’s survey. The thirty years between Ligon and Ford had seen a complete change in the appearance of the island. Where the Barbados that Ligon knew was an island covered in thick forest and only crossed by one path by the time of Ford’s survey there were plantations almost all over the island and even the hilly areas were criss-crossed with paths. Ford was a Quaker who suffered both fines and imprisonment for his beliefs.

One of the more interesting features of the map is the absence of any indication of the fortifications or names of the churches, which were, according to his Quaker conscience, simply depicted with the name of the parish beside them. It may have been his religion rather than his surveying abilities which Governor Atkins found fault with when in 1680 he sent the map to the Lords of Trade: “I have at last procured a Chart of the Island, but I cannot commend it much.”

Jeannette Black is able to point to documentary evidence which establishes that Forde spelled his surname with an e. She argues that there may have been a state of the map earlier than that described by Campbell, and, replying upon the date on which, as far as she was able to determine, William Berry began to do business from the address given in the cartouche, “at the Globe at Charing Cross”, she ascribes to this issue a publication date of (1675-1676).  However, in her London map-sellers, 1660-1720 Sarah Tyacke shows Berry to have advertised from his previous address as late as 14-17 February 1676, which makes 1676 the earliest possible date of publication.

Moreover, the earliest incontrovertible reference to the existence of the map cited by Black occurs when Jonathan Atkins, Governor of Barbados, having been pressed from the highest level since 1675 to furnish a map of the island, is recorded as sending a copy of Forde to England in May 1680.  And one may legitimately wonder why, as it noted above, Morden was unable to incorporate the features of Forde’s map into the 1680 edition of his Geography rectified, despite his stated intention of doing so, if it had been available to him since 1676.  There would be some grounds, then, for favouring a later date of publication that 1676.  A. Moss

PLATE V (No. 8) FORD (RICHARD) 1681
John Carter Brown (JBC) Map Collection

 

9 [1681-1682] [FORD (RICHARD)] Another issue: By Phillip Lea at ye Atlas & Hercules in ye Poultry ouer against ye ould Jury And by Iohn Sellers at his shop on the West side of the Royal Exchange London.

Insets: Plans of the Bridg Toun, Ostines Toun, the Hale Toun and Speights Toun.

The map has been altered in the following ways:

  1. The original imprint in the cartouche in the top left of the map has been erased and the cartouche left blank. The new imprint appears beneath the scale of miles.
  2. Four very sketchy town plans have been added around the sides of the map. This is the first instance of town plans on a map of Barbados, though they are little more than enlarged versions of the plans on the body of the map.
  3. Lines of crosses have been added around the island to indicate rocks.
  4. At the end of “A New Description of the Island of Barbadoes”, has been added; “Their is lately Printed A New Mapp of Jamaica after this Manner by P. Lea”.

The final issue identified by Campbell, that sold by George Willdey, is dated (c1710).  The Royal Arms on the pediment which surmounts the “New Description of the Island of Barbados”, however, have been changed from the traditional Stuart Arms depicted in earlier issues to those adopted by George I, who came to the throne only in August 1714.

Tyacke quotes an advertisement in the Daily Courant of 29th October 1715 showing Willdey at that time to be running both a “Spectacle and Toyshop” near the Dog Tavern in Ludgate Street, an address with which he had been associated with since 1711, and a “Print shop at the the corner of Ludgate Street next to St. Paul’s”.  The imprint indicates that by the time this issue was published these two aspects of his business had been consolidated at the latter address, and so late 1715 becomes the earliest possible date of publication.  A. Moss

(No.9) FORD (RICHARD) (1681-1682)
Norman B. Leventhal

 

In: Seller (J .) Collection of Charts of the World [London 1690] (Also issued in collections by Visscher and others, and separately.)

Another issue: Sold by George Willdey at the Great Toy Spectacle, Chinaware and Print Shop, ye Corner of Ludgate Street near St. Pauls [c. 1710]

Lea’s imprint has been removed from beneath the scale of miles.

(No.9) FORD (RICHARD) [1681-1682] Another issue
AbeBooks

10 1682 SELLER (JOHN) The Island of Barbados by John Seller. 14¼ x 11¼ cms.

In: Seller (J.) Atlas Maritimus: or a Sea-Atlas: describing the sea-coasts in most of the known Parts of the World. London 1682.

In: Seller (J.) Barbados Almanack for XXX yeares [1686] (see also 11 [1686] SELLER (JOHN)).

In: Seller (J.) Hydrographia Universalis or a Book of Maritime Charts [1690]. This is based on Ford’s map.

In: Seller (J.) Atlas terrestis (London: (1700?). Map 40 in volume 2.

(No.10) John Seller 1682
Yale Library

 

W 1684 SLOANE
Manuscript map in the British Library, coloured photograph, 33 by 48 cm..

A map of the island of Barbadoes, on vellum: 1 f. 5 in. x 1 f. 2 in. It accompanies an account of Barbadoes and the government 1683-1684.
Sloane MS. 2441. Available at The British Library reading room.

Sloane Manuscript 2441 1684
British Library

 

11 [1686] SELLER (JOHN) [Barbados]. 7¾ X 5½ cms.

In: Seller (J.) Barbados Almanack for XXX yeares.

A miniature sketch of the Island appearing on the title page. See also 1682 Seller.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

12 [1689] THORTON (JOHN) and Fisher (WILLIAM) The Iland of Barbados by John Thornton at ye Platt in ye Minories And by Will Fisher at ye Postorn Gate on Tower Hill, London.  25½  x 42 cms.

With Bermuda, the two maps divided by a double curved rule, Barbados on the right.

In: The English Pilot, the Fourth Book. West India Navigation . . . London, printed for William Fisher and John Thornton 1689.

Another issue: 1704-6.

In later editions of the English Pilot, published under the imprints of Thornton & Mount, Mount & Page, Mount & Davidson, the maps were divided and printed separately as text illustrations without the title Cartouches. Through the many editions, printed both in London and Dublin, the engraved map of Barbados remained substantially unchanged although it was re-engraved once, about 1750, after which the compass rose is shown entire in the middle of the map, not cut off at. the top. The surrounding text was reset many times and the silhouette of the Island, “when it bears WNW, 7 or 8 leagues off” was changed at least twice and so drastically that it is difficult to believe that it is the same island they depict.

Campbell indicates that the map was “re-engraved once, about 1750”, but a close comparison of the 1728 and 1773 issues led me to conclude that they emanate from the same plate, although for the later issue some of the rhumb lines have been strengthened, and as Campbell notes, the compass rose occupies a lower position on the plate. In the later version about half a centimetre has in fact been cut off the top of the plate, and it is this which necessitated the re-engraving of the compass rose, for the centre of the original compass rose was located very close to the top border.

In his introduction to The English Pilot. The Fourth Book. London, 1689 (Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, 1967) Coolie Verner provides a comprehensive account of the publishing history of the work, including a “List of Editions of the Fourth Book”, the final edition being in 1794, and a “List of chart titles recorded in copies of the Fourth Book” with inclusive dates of their appearance. The Barbados map is listed as appearing in all editions.  A. Moss

 

PLATE VI (No. 12) THORNTON AND FISHER 1689
Librairie Loeb-Larocque – Paris – France, Chart 9-10

 

PLATE VI (No. 12) THORNTON AND FISHER 1751 with Topographic profile of Barbados
Old World Auctions

 

Topographic profile of Barbados from “The English Pilot” 1751, 1763 and 1789 editions
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell.

 

W c.1690 HACK (WILLIAM) Island of Barbados probably from a sea atlas of the coasts of eastern North America and the West Indies.

A description of Coasts Islands & ca. in the North Sea of America: vizt. New-foundland new England New Scotland New France Accadia New york East & West New Jarsey Pennsylvania Maryland Virginia Carolina Florida New Spain lucatan Honduras Nicaragua Costarica New Calidonia Darien Terra Firma New Andalusia Guiana Popayan & part of the Coast of Peru in the south seas; Islands of Anti Costy St. John Plata Sable Martins Vineyard Rhode Block Fishers Long Island Staten, Sommers or Bermudas Bahamas Providence St. Andrews Exuma Elutheria Hinagua Cuba Jamaica Hispaniola Saona Porto Rico Virgins Caribies Barbados Tobago Trinidada Margarita Bonaray Quirissao [sic]

Transcription of lower right on map:

“This island of Barbados was the second Island settled by the English nation in the West Indies or Caribies & is the Eastmost or Windermost Island of all the Caribies it is very healthfully fertile & the best soil of all the Islands many hundreds of the inhabitants have raised great fortune’s to themselves & properties & although it is an Island not much above 20 miles in length & in some places 14 miles in breath yet it hath loaded of great & finale for this 50 years about 300 sale of ships per annum with Sugar Ginger Indigo Cotton Wool Rhum – mallaso’s & insomuch that the inhabitants lives plentiful splendid & very rich; there is a constant militia of four regiments of foot & 1500 men in a regiment & two regiments of hors of 700 in a regiment & a troop of the Governours Lite Guard of 140 hors so that this Island if there be occasion to can bring 20000 effective men into the field it is Govern’d by her Majesties commission with a Governour council & assemble the greatest part of the council being always nominated by her Majistie but the assembly are chosen by the freeholders of he Island two out of every parish & these all together taketh laws with the general consent for the good of the country lays all taxes for defraying of Public charges the island being divided into five precincts each having its particular court of Judicature where all causes comences & have there end being no apeale to bebrought but to the Governor & council as to a court of chancery so it might be said of this Island that the people are happy under such a Government.”

More on William Hack by Richard Boulind 1981. Colonial Society of Massachusetts 

Note: the reflection or double image of the outline of Barbados is a result of the map having been folded and is caused by verdigris a green or greenish-blue poisonous pigment resulting from the action of acetic acid on copper and consisting of one or more basic copper acetates from the original copper plates.

HACK (WILLIAM) 1690
British Library

 

13 1695 COPENS (SAMUEL) A Prospect of Bridge Town in Barbados. 1695.

[Engraved by J. Kip].

Inset: Plan of Bridge Town.

This is a panorama showing a throng of ships in Carlisle “Bay with the fortifications at Needham‘s Point. Bruester’s small Battery, Willoughbie’s Fort, and James’ Fort. Inland can be seen scattered windmills but few traces of the dense indigenous forest that covered the island.

(No. 13) COPENS (SAMUEL) 1695
Library of Congress

 

14 [1696] LEA (PHILIP) [Barbados]. 17 x 21 cms.

5 separate maps on a sheet entitled: The Principall Islands in America belonging to the English Empire viz. Jamaica, Barbados, Antegoa, St. Christophers, and Bermudoa.  56 x 48½  cms. Philip Lea, London.

Inset: St. Michael or the Bridg Town.

A map that usually occurs as an insert in compilations by Visscher, de Wit, and de Ram.

In copies examined at the British Library, the Boston Public Library and the John Carter Brown Library the spelling “Bermudos” rather than “Bermudoa” is used in the title, and “Phillip” rather than “Philip” in the imprint.

The full imprint reads: Sold by Phillip Lea at the Atlas and Hercules in Cheapside.  A. Moss

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

15 [1700] BROWNE (CHRISTOPHER) [Barbados]

8 maps and insets on a sheet entitled: A New Map of the English Empire in the Ocean of America or West Indies.  Sold by Chr. Browne at the Globe near the West end of St. Pauls Church, London. 60½  x 50½  cms.

Inset: St. Michaels or the Bridge Town.

This is a re-engraved and modified version of the 1696 Lea. Barbados, within an irregular frame with Bermudos, has been reduced and moved to the top left. A map of Tobago has been added and the map of St. Kitts transferred to the right hand side.

Another edition: Revised by J. Senex, 1721.

In: Senex (J.) A New General Atlas, London 1721. For illustration see Map Collectors’ Circle No. 19 (Maps of Bermuda) Plate XII.

The pagination in Senex’s A new, general atlas is irregular, with an initial sequence of 272 pages being followed by a sequence paginated 141- 270. The Barbados map is to be found between pages 244 and 245 in the second sequence.  A. Moss

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

16 [1700] LEA (PHILIP) Barbadoes. 17 x 21 cms. Inset: St. Michael or the Bridg Town.

In: Hydrographia universalis; or The sea coasts of the known parts of the world, sold by Philip Lea at the Atlas & Hercules in. Cheap-side London [1700].

The plate for Lea’s The Principal Islands in America belonging to the British Empire, described at 14 above, was apparently cut up to provide maps of the individual islands, for the Barbados map in Hydrographia Universalis is recognizably from the same plate as 14.  A. Moss

(No.16) LEA (PHILIP) 1696 The Principall Islands in America – full sheet
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

(No.16) LEA (PHILIP) 1696 The Principall Islands in America – Barbados insert
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

17 1700 WELLS (EDWARD) A New Map of the most considerable Plantations of the English in America. Sutton Nicholls sculp. 48 x 35½  cms.

Insets: Five, including 1 of Barbados, 8 x 8 cms. in bottom left corner.

In: A new sett of Maps both of Antient and Present Geography. Oxford 1700.

Other editions:

Oxford, Printed at the Theater, 1701.

London, Printed for A. and J. Churchill, 1706.

London, for R. Bonwicke, .l. Walthoe (&c) 1722.

London, Printed W. Bowyer for R. and J. Bonwicke, J. Walthoe, R. Wilkin and T. Ward, 1726.

London, J. & S. Bonwicke [1738].

(No.17) WELLS (EDWARD) 1700?
Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center – Boston Public Library

 

S15 1702 LABAT (JEAN BAPTISTE) Plan de la Barbade. Illustrissimo viro Domino D…Marchiont de Nesmon Regiarum Classium Legato General Ozdinis St Ludovica Commendator oflerebat..Teruns Loannes, etc. Scale of one inch to a league. 18 x 16 ins.

Showing forts, batteries, etc. Original drawing on vellum very faded.  Intelligence for this map had been collected by Labat, a French priest who had visited Barbados around 1700..

In: a Collection of Maps, Prints, Drawings, etc. forming the Geographical and Topographical collection attached to the Library of King George III and presented by King George IV to the British Museum.

(No.S15) Plan de la Barbade 1702
British Library

 

W  1708 COVENS and MORTIER America Septentrionalis in Suas Praecipuas Partes Divisa, ad usum Serenissumu Burgundiae Ducis 48.2 x 59.6 cms.

An extraordinary map, this is Covens and Mortier’s 1708 reissue of De L’Isle’s landmark 1700 mapping of North America. Covers the continent of North America from the Baffin Bay southwards as far as the Spanish Main, westwards to Cape Mendocino, and eastwards to include the Azores and the Sargasso Sea. Cartographically this map is practically identical to De L’Isle’s map though the title cartouche has been moved to the upper left quadrant and the mile scales to the upper right with a new curtain motif frame. Tooley, in his Mapping of America considers this to be a foundational map and indeed it is one of the most influential maps to emerge from the De L’Isle workshop. Some consider this map to be one of the first to revert California to a peninsular state following the insular suppositions of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, this may be a misreading of the map. De L’Isle leaves the northern terminus of the Gulf of California open such that, though the form of California is suggestive of a peninsular state, should exploration prove the opposite, the cartographer was covered.

Just to the east of Barbados, in the Antilles, a curious apocryphal island appears with the label “I. de Fonseca selon Quelquefuns”. This island, which is here surrounded by dangerous rocks and reefs, appears in several maps of the region as early as Hondius’ Americae Novissima Descriptio where it is identified as Y. de S. B. This island was also identified by M. Rochette with the label Galissioniere’s Rock. Other ships, including the Rainbow, claim to have seen the island as late as 1822. De L’Isle was the first to give the map a definite name, Fonseca. Even so, with so few sightings of the island it disappeared from most maps issued in the 18th century. There is some speculation that discolored water occasionally discharged by the nearby Orinoco River led to various false sightings of land. The condition of this map is of special note as it is nothing short of spectacular. The impression is so intense it is reminiscent of Coronelli’s work and the overall state of preservation is remarkable.

COVENS and MORTIER – Reissue of De L’Isle’s landmark 1700 mapping of North America 1708
Wikimedia

 

18 1717 MOLL (HERMAN) A New Map of the Island of Barbadoes, containing all ye Parishes, and Principal Plantations; together with ye Forts, Lines, Batteries, Roads, &c. 25½ x 18 cms.

In: Atlas Geographus: or, A Compleat System of Geography (Ancient and Modern) for America . . . In the Savoy: Printed by Eliz. Nutt for John Nicholson at the King’s Arms in Little Britain [London 1711-17]. (This issue has: Vol. 2, Page 1, in the top left hand corner.)

Another issue: With the page number deleted.

In: Bowle’s Atlas Minor: containing a new and curious set of Sixty-Five Maps, by Herman Moll . . . Printed and sold by the Proprietor Carington Bowles . . . St. Paul’s Church Yard, London [c. 1765].

Another issue: “Printed for Carington Bowles in London” added beneath the title.

see also 24 [1729] MOLL (HERMAN)

Although Campbell states the first issue of this map to be in Herman Moll’s Atlas geographus (1717), it had been issued previously in the first edition of John Oldmixon’s 2-volume work, The British Empire in America (1707), sometimes opposite the title-page of volume 2 and sometimes opposite its page 1. The significance of the lettering Vol. 2 Page 1 which Campbell records as being present on the Atlas geographus issue thus becomes apparent. From an examination of the lettering on other plates in the work it is possible to deduce that its intended position is opposite page 1, rather than opposite the title-page.

The map is also present in the 2nd edition, 1741, of Oldmixon’s work. In this issue, to the top right-hand corner there has been added: (12)

For a Dutch edition of Oldniixon, Het Britannische Ryk in Amerika (Amsterdam: By Rudolf en Gerard Wetstein, 1721) the map was re-engraved, with the place names rendered in Dutch wherever possible (Scotland = Schotland, Lowe Point = Lowe Punt, etc.). The map appears not to have been altered for a 1727 issue (Amsterdam: By Hendrik Bosch).

“An account of the plates, maps and tables in all five volumes of the Atlas geographus” which is to be found in some copies of the Atlas geographus indicates that in this work the map of Barbados was placed between pages 460 and 461 of volume 5.

The Carrington Bowles issues identified by Campbell are distinguished by their having the lettering 57, ruled off, in the top right-hand corner (cf. Plate VII in Campbell).

Phillips indicates that the map is also called for in Moll’s Forty-two new maps of Asia, Africa and America (London: J. Nicholson,1716). A. Moss

PLATE VII (No. 18) MOLL (HERMAN) 1717
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

19 [1719] CHATELAIN (H. A.) Carte qui contient une description des iles & terres que les Anglois possedent dans l’Amerique Septentrionale, 52 X 40½ cms. [Amsterdam, 1719.]

Inset: Ile des Barbades, 7¼ x 5¼  cms.

In: Atlas Historique, 7 vols. Amsterdam, 1705 – 20.

The map on which the inset occurs is lettered Tome VI no. 26 pag. 100, and it is indeed to be found as map no. 26 at page 100 of Volume VI. It does not appear in the 2nd edition, 1720 -1739, of the Atlas historique  A. Moss

(No.19)CHATELAIN (H. A.) 1719
Martayan Lan

 

W 1719 Plan de Lisle de la Barbade
Cartes marines: a la svbstitvtion dv Valdec proche Solevre en Svisse, MDCCXXVII
Bound together in 1727 as an atlas comprised of 115 numbered leaves.
French
Sheet 065, Map and nautical chart of Barbados; fortifications and number of cannons. Scale 1:41,400

Plan de Lisle de la Barbade 1719
Edward E. Ayer Digital Collection (Newberry Library)

The 1719 Plan de Lisle de la Barbade was printed in a French Maritime Atlas of 1727. The full altlas is held at the Newberry Library in Chicago.  This 1719 French map shows all the Barbados forts with the number of cannons. The spies must have been at work!  It looks like it was based on the Father Labat map from 1702 – shown below for ease of comparison.

(No.S15) Plan de la Barbade 1702
British Library

 

20 1720 VAN KEULEN (GERARD) Nieuwe Land en Zeekaart Van Het Eyland Barbados Geleegen in West India Onder de Caribesse Eylanden. 59 X 51 cms.

Inset: Plan of S. Michael’s of the Bridg Town, and 4 silhouettes.

In: Van Keulen (G.) De Groote Nieuwe Vermeerderde Zee-Atlas [Amsterdam] 1720.

Other issues: [1740] [1783].

(No.20) VAN LEULEN (GERARD) 1740
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

S20 1721 A New Map of the English Empire in the Ocean of America or West Indies.  Revised by J. Senex. I. Harris Sculp. Barbados. Scale of English Miles, 5 [ = 40mm.]

(In A New General Atlas containing a Geographical and Historical Account of the Empires, Kingdoms, and other Dominions of the World: …… The Maps, which are all engraven or revised by Mr, Senez, are laid down according to the Observations communicated to the English Royal Society ….. Printed for Daniel Browne without Temple Bar, Thomas Taylor over against Serieants Inn in Fleet St., John Darby in Bartholomew Close. John Senez in Salisbury Court, William Taylor in Pater Noster Row, Joseph Smith in Exeter Change, Andrew Johnston Engraver in Round Court, Wiliam Bray next the Fountain Tavern in the Strand, Edward Symon in Cornhill.) [London,] 1721. fol, 

 

One sheet 20 x 24 ins., partly coloured, comprising the West India Islands showing Barbados, with plan of St. Michael’s of the Bridge Town inset. Dedicated by the Under-takers to Prince George Augustus of Brunswick-Lunenburgh, Duke of Cornwall.

(No.S20) SENEX (J.) 1721
McMaster University Digital Archive

21 1722 MAYO (WILLIAM) A New & Exact Map of the Island of Barbadoes in America According to an Actual & Accurate Survey Made in the Years 1717 to 1721 Approved by the Royal Society & Authorised By His Majesty‘s Royal Licence. Engraved by John Senex 1722.  4 sheets 110½  x 94 cms.

Inset: Plan of the Bridge Town. Also a Prospect of Codrington College, and a vignette of a surveyor in a typical Barbadian setting. Mayo’s was the second systematic, and first large-scale, survey of the Island and it was on this that the legal bounds of the parishes were fixed. Schomburgk writing in 1847 suggested that the outdated boundaries should be revised, but it was not until the Admiralty survey of 1873 that Mayo’s map ceased to be the standard representation of Barbados.

Another issue: [1750] the words, “Made in the Years 1717 to 1721 . . . engraved by John Senex 1722” omitted.

Another issue: [1794] Watermark: JW Whatman 1794

An “Explanation” interprets the symbols used on the map for plantations, churches, fortifications, etc., and gives the “contents” (i.e. acreage) of the various parishes. The inset plan of the Bridge Town is noteworthy in that for the first time the names of streets are given, via another Explanation. A. Moss

PLATE VIII (No. 21) MAYO (WILLIAM) 1722
British Library
JCB Map Library
The Huntington 

 

22 1724 LABAT (JEAN BAPTISTE) Plan de l’Isle de la Barbade. 13½  X 12½  cms.

In: Labat (J . B.) Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de l’Amerique. 2 vols. La Haye, 1724. (Lettered: Tom 1 pag 129.)

In: Labat (J. B.) Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de l’Amerique. 6 vols. La Haye 1724 (in Vol. 4).

In: Labat (J. B.) Nouveau Voyage aux Isles de l’Amerique. 8 vols. Paris, 1742. (Lettered Tom 6. pag 182.)

This extremely rare map, so inaccurate as to be almost unrecognisable, did not appear in the first edition of Labat 1722. Along the top of the map is a key to the places numbered in the sketch. Only the towns and fortifications are shown.

The map is based on a manuscript map housed at K.l23.116 in the King’s Library collection at the British Library, which is described in the printed catalogue of the collection as Plan desiné de la Barbade, 1702 and on the map itself as Plan de la Barbade, 1702. [See Figure 1.]

An extensive key at bottom left interprets the principal features identified on the map, i.e. the boundary of “La Ville”, lettered A on the map, and 20 locations relating primarily to fortifications and their armaments, numbered 1-20 on the map. The scale is given as “Eschelle de cinq lieues”.

A cartouche at top left bears an inscription in Latin, the bottom half of which is partially illegible because of damage to the map, and it is from this inscription that the British Library is able to state in a catalogue entry that the map is “dedicate-d to Andre’, Marquis de Nesmond, Admiral, by Jean…thor…Platevet de Paar”.

 The printed versions (for there are two) differ chiefly in that the key is presented in a compartment above the map, and in that some of the features identified via the key in the manuscript version are now named on the map itself. Bridgetown, for instance, is now identified on the map (as “La Ville du Pont”), as is the Speightstown Roadstead (“Rade de Spika”) with the result that the key now interprets only A and nos. 1 – 17, rather than 1 – 20, while some features not to be found on the manuscript version (eg. La Basset Terre, La Cabesterre, and the names of three further towns) have been added to the body of the map. The scale of the printed versions is given as “Echelle de six lieues”’.

The most obvious distinguishing feature of the two printed versions is that in the earlier [see Figure II] the key is presented in four columns, while in the later it is in three columns, divided by ruled lines. Additionally, the names of features off the west coast of the island are presented at an angle in the earlier version. while in the later they are horizontal.

As is apparent from the following paragraphs, the 4-column version is used in Paris editions of Labat’s Voyage aux Isles de l’Amerique, while Dutch versions employ the 3-column version.

Although Campbell states that the 1st edition of Labatis Voyage aux Iles de L’Amerique (Paris: Chez Francois Giffart, 1722, 6 vols.) does not contain the map, it does appear in at least some copies, in the four-column version, lettered at top right Tom.4 bag 387.

The three-column version first appears in the 2-volume and 6-volume editions of Labat’s work published La Haye: Chez P. Husson (et al.), 1724. As Campbell notes, this issue is lettered Tomi pag. 129. An examination of the text, however, shows that its logical place in the 2-volume edition is at page 129 of volume 2, and in some copies it has been bound in at this point.

The three-column version reappears in an issue not recorded in Campbell, a 4-volume Dutch edition of Labat, Nieuwe Reizen naar de Franse Eilanden van America… (Te Amsterdam : By Balthasar Lakeman, 1725). This issue is lettered, at top right : III Deel. Pag.4. It should be noted, however, that volume 3 consists of two separately paged parts, and it is in the second pagination sequence that the map is to be found.

The 8-volume 1742 Paris edition of the Voyage appears to have been issued under at least four different imprints. That published Chez J .B. Delespine carries the 4—column version, lettered Tom.6.pag.182. A. Moss

(No. 22) LABAT (JEAN BAPTISTE) 1724
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

23 1728 BERMUDAS AND BARBADOS. (with Boston Harbour and Antego)

In: [Cutler (Nathaniel)] Atlas Maritimus et Commercialis…. by Senex. A General View of the World so far as relates to Trade and Navigation. 1728. 26½ x 48 cms.

Bermuda and Barbados occupy the right-hand page of a double-page spread produced from a single plate appearing in Nathaniel Cutler’s A general coasting pilot containing directions for sailing into and out of the principal ports and harbours throughout the known world… (London : Printed for James and John Knapton [et al.], 1728), which forms the second part of the Atlas maritimus & commercialis; or, A general view of the world so for as relates to trade and navigation… to which are added sailing directions for all the known coasts and islands on the globe (London : Printed for James and John Knapton [et al.], 1728). The page is divided into two compartments separated by an irregular rule, with Bermuda in the upper and Barbados in the lower. Untitled on the pages themselves, in “A list of the Charts &c. belonging to the General Coasting-Pilot. annex’d to the Atlas Maritimus” the map is listed at no. 48 as “A Draught of the Islands of Antegoa, Barbadoes and Bermudas; together with Boston Harbour.” Although the Atlas and the Coasting pilot each has its own title-page and is separately paginated, the wording for of the “List of Charts” and of the Atlas’s title-page suggest that they were issued as a single entity.

The map is lettered 48, at bottom right.

The John Carter Brown Library ascribes probable authorship of the Atlas maritimes & commercials to John Senex, whose name is included amongst those for whom the work was printed.  A. Moss

(No.23) Rare Sea Chart of Boston, Bermuda, Barbados and Antigua – 1728 Atlas Maritimus et Commercialis
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

24 [1729] MOLL (HERMAN) The Island of Barbadoes. Divided into its Parishes, with the Roads, Paths, &c. According to an Actual and Accurate Survey. By H. Moll, Geographer, 1728. 36½ X 29 cms.

Imprint: Sold by H. Moll, over against Devereux court, between Temple-Bar and St. Clement’s Church in ye Strand; where may be had His Set of thirty-two new Maps of ye Principal Parts of Europe, with roads.

Beneath “Note, This Pocket Companion . . .” (top right of the map) is a note, “Very usefull for all Gentlemen that Travel to any part of Barbadoes”.

In: Atlas Minor; or, a set of Sixty-two New & Correct maps, 1729.

Another issue: Date, imprint and note “Very usefull for all Gentlemen that travel . . .”, erased, though clear traces of them remain. In place of the imprint is a new note about the geography of the Island and another, within a triangular frame, on the history. Outside the frame, top left is, V.3, p. 587, and top right, 59.  Within the frame, bottom right is the new imprint: “Printed and Sold by Tho: Bowles next ye Chapter House in St. Paul‘s Churchyard & I. Bowles & Son, at ye Black Horse, Cornhil (sic)”,

In: Atlas Minor. Printed for Thomas Bowles & John Bowles [1732] (the maps are dated to 1732.)

Another issue: top left reads Vol. 3, p. 638. Last line of the imprint now reads: “1. Bowles at the Black Horse in Cornhill.”

Another issue: Volume and page numbers erased.

In: Atlas Minor. London Printed for Thos. Bowles in St. Pauls Church Yard & John Bowles at the Black Horse in Cornhill [1745].

Another Edition: 34½ X 28 cms. [1739].

No imprint. Entirely re-engraved but a direct copy of the first edition with the following differences:— Outside the frame, top right, is the number 64, and bottom right, the letters QQQ. As this was copied from the first issue the note: “Very usefull for all Gentlemen . . .” re-occurs and the note within the triangular frame is omitted, but in place of the original imprint is a note about the position of Bridgetown. There are also traces of the original date, 1728, which can only be accounted for by supposing that the engraver copied the plate so zealously as to include a date which would have made the map 11 years out of date at the moment of publication, and which had therefore to be erased.

In: Modern History: or, the Present State of all Nations, 6 vols. Printed by and for George Grierson . . . at the King’s Arms and Two Bibles in Essex Street [Dublin], 1739.

Another issue: Printed and Sold by Geo: Grierson at the Two Bibles in Essex Street, Dublin. With the additions of the note within the triangular frame, and the geographical note which follows beneath, “The longetude of The Bridge Town . . .”

In: Just Publish’d Atlas Minor: a set of Sixty-Eight New and Correct Maps . . . The Third Edition with the Addition of Six Maps . . . Dublin: Printed by George Grierson. [1745]

The maps are dated up to 1732 but the title page cites the work which contains the first Grierson issue, “Modern History” (1739). The claim to be the Third Edition was presumably to disguise the fact that this was a pirated edition.

N.B.—The dating of the various issues of the Atlas Minor can only be tentative as, in the later issues, neither the title nor maps were dated and the book was often re-issued with the engraved title unchanged.

The 1717 Moll is based on Ford’s map and follows that in being oriented with the west at the top. The 1729 Moll is an entirely new map with the orientation reversed and the parish boundaries shown according to Mayo’s survey. However as Carington Bowles (the publisher of later issues of the 1717 Moll) was born in 1724 and appears to have been active in the period 1764 to 1793 the original Moll must have been re-issued at a much later date, despite the existance of a more modern version.

see also 18 [1717] MOLL (HERMAN)

PLATE IX (No. 24) MOLL (HERMAN) 1729
David Rumsey Map Collection (1732 ed.)

 

25 1733  POPPLE (HENRY)  The Island of Barbadoes. London 7½ x 9½ cms.

Engrav’d by William Henry Toms 1733.

Insert (with three others): on Sheet 20 and last of Popple’s “A Map of the British Empire in America”

Popple’s A map of the British Empire (London : Stephen Austen, [1733]) now also exists in reprint (Lympne Castle, Kent : Harry Margary, 1972).

Sabin gives an original publication date of [1732], with re-issues in 1733 and 1740. A. Moss

(No. 25) POPPLE (HENRY) 1737
David Rumsey Map Collection

 

26 [1737]  HOMANN (J. B., heirs) Insula Barbadoes in Suas Parochias distincta, una cum Oris maritimis, Viis &c. Ad fidem Anglicani Authoris delineata. 28 x 22 cms.

One of 5 maps on a sheet titled: Die Englische Colonie-Laender auf den Inseln von America: Dominia Anglorum in Praecipuis Insulis Americae  55½ x 48½ cms.

In: Grosser Atlas . . . Nurnberg . . . Homannischen erben 1737. Also 1747.

In: Schul Atlas, 1743.

In: Atlas Novus sive Tab. Geographicae . . . Tobias Conrado Lotter Augustae Vindelicorum [1752].

The Barbados map is copied from the 1729 Moll with the explanatory text in German.

Phillips indicates that the map is also called for at map 142 in the Homann heirs’ Atlas geographus maior (Norimbergae : curantibus Hommanianis Heredibus, 1759-[1784]. A. Moss

PLATE X (No. 26) HOMANN (J.B., heirs) 1737
Abe Books

 

PLATE X (No. 26) HOMANN (J.B., heirs) 1737
AbeBooks

 

PLATE X (No. 26) HOMANN (J.B., heirs) 1759
George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida

 

27 [1740] [DELISLE (GUILLAUME)] The Island of Barbadoes. 7 X 9 cms.

On sheet: Les Principales Forteresses Ports &c. de l’Amerique Septentrionale. 60 x 48 cms. [Covens & Mortier, Amsterdam]

Delisle gathered together all the insets from Popple’s map and published them on one sheet. This is a crop from the full sheet.

PLATE XI (No.27) DELISLE (GUILLAUME) 1740
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell

 

Another issue: COVENS & MORTIER 1745 circa  Hand Coloured 24 x 19.5 inches

Les Principales Forteresses Ports &c. De L’Amerique Septentrionale (Harbors, Towns & Fortreses of North America, including Charleston, New York, Curacao, Bermuda, Boston, Placentia, Fort Royal, Anapolis Royal, Providence, Barbados, Antigua, Cartagene, Kingston, Porto Bello, San Antoino

COVENS & MORTIER 1745 circa Les Principales Forteresses Ports &c. De L’Amerique Septentrionale
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

W 1740 BUACHE (PHILLIPPE) Port, baye cul de sac Royal dans la Martinique — Isle des Barbades une des Isles Antilles — Cartagene située sur le Côte de la nouvelle Espagne dans l’Amerique septle. — Port de Porto Belo à la Côte Septle. de l’Isthme de Panama.

4 maps on 1 sheet. Hand Coloured.  53 x 35 cm. French (outside lower right border) a Paris, ave Privilege du Roy, (inside lower right border) Desbrustins Sculp.

Notes: Plate 6 of Plans des isles, rades, et ports de plusieurs lieux de l’Amérique tirés de la carte angloise de Mr. Popple publiée en 1733 à Londres en vingt feuilles. Relief shown pictorially. Depths shown by soundings.

Citation: Tooley, R. V. Mapping of America, p. 30-31, plate 19.

BUACHE (PHILLIPPE) 1740
The Washington Library

 

28 1746  TRAIL (JOHN)  A Map of the fortified part of the Island of Barbadoes drawn by John Trail, Engineer, Feb. 9, 1746, with a list of the forts & batteries in the Island.   Bridgetown, 1746.

The first map published in Barbados.  The only recorded copy is in the Colonial Office, London.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

29 [1747] BOWEN (EMANUEL)  An Accurate Map of the Island of Barbadoes Drawn from an Actual Survey containing all the Towns, Churches, Fortifications, Roads, Paths, Plantations, &c.  42½ x 35 cms.

In: Bowen (E.) A Complete System of Geography, 2 vols, Herman Moll, 1747.

In: Bowen (E.) A Complete Atlas or District view of the known World, London, 1752.

Two issues have been encountered. One, with 69 at bottom left, outside of the border, has been found in copies of both Bowen’s A complete system of geography (1747) and his A complete atlas. The second, with 72 outside the border at bottom right, has so far been encountered only in the 1747 edition of A complete system of geography.

It has not yet been possible to examine a copy of an earlier edition of Bowen’s A complete system of geography (London : Printed for William Innys [etc.,], 1744) to determine whether it contains the Barbados map, and if so, which issue. A. Moss

PLATE XII (No. 29) BOWEN (EMANUEL) 1747
David Rumsey Map Collection

 

PLATE XII (No. 29) BOWEN (EMANUEL) 1752
Library of Congress

 

30 [1748] LE ROUGE (G. L.)  La Barbade une des antilles aux anglois divisee par Paroisse.  A Paris.  Par le Sr. le Rouge rue des grands Augustins. 20 x 27 cms.

With Isle St. Christophle (sic) on same sheet.

In: Atlas nouveau portatif… a I’usage des militaires et du voyageur, Le Rouge, Paris  [1748] and 1756.

Another issue:  A Paris. Chez Crepy 1767. Crepy acquired the c.1748 plates from Le Rouge’ s “Atlas Nouveau Portatif” and re-issued them in Paris, often adding his imprint and the date 1767.

All examples so far seen have the lettering 88 rotated through 90° outside the border at top left, the map having been issued as a double-page spread with north to the right and 88 being the page number or plate number.  A. Moss

PLATE XIII (No.30) LE ROUGE (G.L.) 1748
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell

 

(NO. 30) CREPY (JEAN-BAPTISTE 1748
University of Florida – Digital Library of the Caribbean

 

(NO. 30) CREPY (JEAN-BAPTISTE) 1767
Old Print Shop

 

31 1750  JEFFERYS (THOMAS)  A Map of the Island of Barbados, drawn from an Actual Survey, and from Observations of the Revd. Mr. Griffith Hughes, M.A., F.R.S.  [London, 1750]. 35 ½ x 42 cms.

In: Hughes (G.) Natural History of Barbados, 1750

As is implied in the “List of the Subscribers” present in all copies of Hughes’s The natural history of Barbados, a number of copies on “large paper” were produced.

Two issues of the map exist, differentiated by the presence or absence of a scale below the compass rose: English statute miles 69 to a Degree.  A. Moss

(No. 31) JEFFERYS (THOMAS) 1750
JCB Library

 

32 I756 MAYO (WILLIAM) New and Accurate Map of the Island of Barbadoes, with some late improvements.  R. Sayer, London, 1756.  47 ½ x 56 cms.

Insert: Plan of Bridge Town

The full title of the map is: A New & Accurate Map of the Island of Barbadoes, Divided into its Parishes, Containing all the Towns, Plantations, Forts, Capes, Bays, &c. Actually Surveyed by William Mayo. With some late Improvements. 1756

And the full imprint, centred outside the bottom border, reads: London: Printed for Robt. Sayer at the Golden Buck opposite Fetter Lane Fleet Street.

The inset “Particular Plan of Bridge Town” contains most but not all of the information given in the inset in the earlier, much larger representation of Mayo’s map (see 21, above), and the bulk of the information is presented on the plan itself rather than via an Explanation.Similarly, a less detailed Explanation is provided for the main map (with only two categories of plantation or sugar works identified, as opposed to four on the 1722 map). There is no table showing the acreage of the parishes, and not all of the names of either coastal or inland features have been transferred.

The map has twice been reprinted in recent years in Barbados.  A. Moss

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

33 1758 BELLIN (J.N.)  Carte de I’Isle de la Barbade dressee au Depost des tee des Vaisseaux du Roy. 40 x 56 cms.

ln: Bellin (J. N.) Hydrographie francoise, 2 vols. and Neptune de l’Amerique Meridionale.

There are two issues of this; one lettered No. 81 on the top right with bottom left: “Pris, Trente sols,” and the other without the lettering.

The map is listed at 81 in the “Table des cartes” of the Hydrographie francoise.

There is another issue in which a small circular seal reading “Depot de la Marine” has been added, off the St James coast, with the price given as “Prix. dix huit Sols.”

 A. Moss

PLATE XIV (No. 33) BELLIN (J.N.) 1758
Norman B. Leventhal Map Center

 

34 1758 BELLIN (J.N.) Carte de l’lsle da la Barbade. 15 x 19½ cms.

In: Description Geoographique des lsles Antilles possédées par les anglois. Paris, Didot, 1758.

In: Bellin (J. N,) Petit Atlas Francois Recueil de cartes et plans des quatre parties du monde (Vol. l) 1763 – 4.

(in this first issue the map has no volume or page numbering)

Another issue: Lettered Tome 1. No. 98. in: Bellin: Petit Atlas Maritime (VOL. 1) 1764.

Another issue: “Pour servir a l’Histoire Générale des Voyages”, added beneath the title.  Along the bottom Tom. XV in 40 No. 17 and Tome 15 in 80, page 567.

In: La Harpe (J.) Abrégé de I’Histoire générale des voyages, 1780.

PLATE XV (No. 34) BELLIN (J.N.) 1764
Library of Congress

 

ANOTHER ISSUE: “Pour servir a l’Histoire Générale des Voyages”, Tom. XV in 40 No. 17 and Tome 15 in 80, page 567.
Old World Auctions – Richmond, Virginia, USA.

 

35 1758-[81] BELLIN (J. N.) Carta dell’lsola della Barbada. 15 x 19 ½ cms. [Venice, 1781.]

In: Teatro della guerra maritima, Venezia, 1781.

(The map completely re-engraved with the place names mostly in Italian.)

For further details on the Bellin map editions see Addendum by Alan Moss.

(No. 35) BELLIN (J.N.) 1781
Michael Jennings

 

36 [1763] ROSSI (M. V., engraver) Carta esatta rappresentante l’Isola di Barbados. 18½ x 22½  cms. D. Verem. Rossi M. V.sc.

In: 11 Gazzettiere Americano . . . del Nuovo Mondo, 3 vols, Livorno, 1763.

In: Atlante dell’America, Livorno, 1777.

Based on and very similar in appearance to the small Bellin.

(No.36) ROSSI (M. V., engraver) Carta esatta rappresentante l’Isola di Barbados 1763
Antiquarius – Rome

 

37 1766 GIBSON (J.) A Plan of Bridge Town, in the Island of Barbadoes.  J. Gibson del. et sculp. 19 x 11 cms.

In: Gentleman’s Magazine, 1766.

Shows the extent of the fire of May 14th, 1766. Published facing an appeal on behalf of the unfortunate inhabitants of Bridge Town. (Unshaded area was was destroyed by fire.) 

PLATE XVI (No. 37) GIBSON (J.) 1766
University of Texas Arlington

 

38 1775 JEFFERYS (THOMAS) Barbadoes, Surveyed By William Mayo, Engraved and Improved By Thomas Jefferys.  Robert Sayer 20 Feb., 1775. 45½ x 61 cms.

In: Jefferys (T.) The West India Atlas, or a Compendious Description of the , West Indies, Sayer & Bennett, London, 1775.

– Robert Sayer and John Bennett, 1780.

– Robert Sayer and John Bennett, 1783-7.

– R. Sayer, 1794.

In: Atlas des Indes Occidentales, Londres R. Sayer & J. Bennett; Paris, Julien, 1777.

In: West India Islands from actual survey and observations, London, R. Sayer and J. Bennett [1778].

– R. Laurie and J. Whittle, 1795.

Another edition: dated 1794.

In: West India Islands, R. Laurie & J. Whittle, 1795.

– Laurie & Whittle, [1797].

In: West India Atlas, Laurie & Whittle [1796].

– R. Laurie & J. Whittle, 1807. Another edition: Improved edition 12 March, 1810, Laurie & Whittle.

In: West India Islands, Robert Laurie & James Whittle, 1810.

In: West India Atlas, J. Whittle & R. H. Laurie, 1818.

Another edition: Improved edition lst January, 1848, Richard Laurie, London (Published as a single map).

PLATE XVII (No. 38) JEFFERYS (THOMAS) 1775
Old World Auctions

 

PLATE XVII (No. 38) JEFFERYS (THOMAS)  another edition 1794
Barry Lawrence Ruderman

 

W 1779 LE ROUGE (GEORGES_LOUIS) La Barbade. Based on the Jeffrey’s map of 1775 with different colouring, French text for Parishes  and some other locations.  All forts have been hi-lited in red. JW

levée par G. Mayo ; gravée par Jefferys. Contributors Mayo, William (Surveyor)  Jefferys, Thomas 1771. Hand coloured.    Scale 1:47,000. 46 x 59 cms.

Shows parishes, towns, bays, anchorages, topography and shoals Relief shown by hachures. Prime meridians: London and Ferro. Includes 2 views: Vue de la Barbade lorsque le Point du Nord vous reste O.N.O. a 9 lieues de distance — Vue de la Barbade lorsqu’elle gist O.N.O. a 7 lieues. Includes list of acreage of parishes. Manuscript label on verso: No. 57. Isle de la Barbade.

The French plate is clearly a different one (from the English Jeffrey’s map). Just compare any of the lettering.  Even if the letters are the same the way it is written is not. You just need to be able to compare much enlarged sections, looking for the differences, not the inevitable similaritie. After all, one will always have been very closely copied from the other

But what is interesting is the way that instead of either translating it throughout or leaving it entirely as it was, he decided to go half way.

The parish names are translated and some other ones too (somewhat arbitrarily, e.g. Pointe meridionale at the extreme south but High Point left at the north. Grand Cap for Great Head, and so on.  Chateau ste Anne. I dare say he, or his engraver, were translating some of the descriptive names, so we get Forts de Maycock, but Cuckholds Point (perhaps he didn’t know what it meant!).

Intriguingly, just above Bridgetown you get Basses d’un demi Acre for The 1/2 Acre shoal.  But that is one of the quite small toponyms, which have otherwise been left.

Essentially, what you have  is an unusual example of a slightly translated map. .. Tony Campbell Feb. 2020

LE ROUGE (GEORGES_LOUIS) 1779
The Washington Library

 

39 1780 LÓPEZ, (D. JUAN) Carta de la Isla de la Barbada. 1:95,000. 49 x 34 cms.

In: Lopez (D. J.) Atlas, Madrid, 1780.

(No. 39) LÓPEZ, (D. JUAN) 1780
Library of Congress

 

40 1780 BONNI: (R.) Supplement pour les Isles Antilles extrait des cartes angloises. 21 X 32 cms.

I. de la Barbade (7 x 7 cms.) one of 9 small insets beneath a map of the Virgin Is.

In: Raynal (G. T.) Histoire Philosophique et Politique. Atlas de toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre, Geneva, 1780.

Also a Dutch edition.

(No. 40) BONNI (R.) 1780

 

41 1780-88 BONNI: (R.) Cartes de Supplément pour les Isles Antilles.  Andre’ sculp. 34½  x 23½ cms.

  1. de la Barbade (9 X 6½ cms.) one of 8 small insets (without Barboude) under the Virgin Is.

In: Encyclopédie Méthodique, Atlas, Paris, 1788.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

S32 1782  WALKER (THOMAS) Plan of Fort George on Mount Charity Barbados. 45 x 57 cms.

This plan is most humbly presented to His Excellency Major General Cunninghame, Governor and Commander in Chief &c., of Barbadoes by His Most Obedient and Most humble Servant Thomas Walker, Lt. Col. Light Infantry. Scale 1:1,380

(Above the dedication is a crest, a broken tree, with wreath and motto – Tandem.)  Governor Cunninghame arrived as Governor July 13. 1780. He was recalled, and left Barbados June 18, 1783

(No.S32) WALKER (THOMAS) 1782
British Library Online Gallery

 

(No. S32) WALKER (THOMAS) 1782 (Another edition)
Boston Public Library – Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center

 

42 1782 BALDWIN (R.) Island of Barbados.  R. Baldwin. 10 x12½  cms.

In: London Magazine, April, 1782.

The Barbados map is one of four—with St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Windward Is.—on a sheet, 19 X 24½  cms.

(No.42) BALDWIN (R.) 1782 Chart of Part of the Windward Islands including Island of Barbados

 

43 1782 LODGE (J ., engraver) An Accurate Map of the Island of Barbadoes in which the different Parishes are laid down; with a Plan of Bridge-town and Carlisle Bay.  J. Bew, London, Jany 15th, 1782. 37 x 28 ½ cms.

Inset: Plan of the Bridge-town. In: Supplement to Political Magazine, January, 1782. SEE

PLATE XVIII (No. 43) LODGE (J.) 1782
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell

 

PLATE XVIII (No. 43) LODGE (J.) Coloured version
WorthPoint

 

PLATE XVIII (No. 43) LODGE (J.) Coloured version – Inset: Plan of the Bridge-town
WorthPoint

 

44 1794 EDWARDS (BRYAN) Map of the Island of Barbadoes; for the History of the West Indies, by Bryan Edwards Esqr., G. Allen Sculp., John Stockdale, Piccadilly, Oct. 6, I794. 18½ x 23 cms. Ed. noteCampbell’s book says 1794, map 1791

In: Edwards (B) The History, Civil and Commercial of the British Colonies in the West Indies, second edition, London, 1794. Also 1801, 1807.

Another edition: Tanner sc. In: A new atlas of the British West Indies … Engraved to accompany the Philadelphia edition of Edwards’ History of the West Indies, Charleston, 1810.

Another edition: In: Edwards ( B.) History of the British West Indies. 5 vols, 1818. (The imprints on the maps erased).

PLATE XIX (No. 44) EDWARDS (BRYAN) 1791
CaribMap

 

45 [1814] THOMSON (JOHN) Barbadoes. 30½ X 50 cms.

On sheet: West India Islands (with St. Vincent).

ln: Thomson (1.) A New General Atlas, Edinburgh, London & Dublin, 1814, 1816. [1821], 1833.

The following variants of this map appear:——

  1. Drawn & Engraved for Thomson’s New General Atlas.
  2. Engraved by Kirkwood & Son, Edinburgh. Longitude W. from London, Longitude W. from Ferro.
  3. The same, with a thick shaded border behind the title.
  4. Longitude W. from London. etc. removed.

 

PLATE XX (No. 45) THOMSON (JOHN) 1814

 

46 [1816] LUFFMAN (1.) Barbadoes.

In: Luffman’s Geographical and topographical atlas, London, 1816-15.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

47 [1818] BARRALIER (F. DE) [Bridgetown and Carlisle Bay]. [London, 1818.] 34 X 37½ cms.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

48 [1818] BARRALIER (F. DE) Carlisle Bay, Bridgetown, and suburbs, showing First Project of forming a grand naval establishment at Bridgetown. 34 X 37½  cms.

Printed from stone, Horse Guards [London]. 1818.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

49 1818 BARRALIER (F. DE) Carlisle Bay, Bridgetown, and its suburbs, showing the Second Project. 34 x 37½ cms. Printed from stone, Horse Guards [London]. 1818.

The hurricane of October 1817 had caused considerable damage to the shipping in Bridge Town and Capt. Barralier drew up several plans with suggested ways of making the harbour both safer and able to accommodate more and larger ships.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

50 1821 ADMIRALTY CHART. A Survey of Carlisle Bay in the Island of Barbadoes from a MS. in the Hydrographical Office, by T. Payton, RN. Admiralty, March 26th, 1821. 47½  X 62 cms.

Inset: Silhouette of North and Pelican Island.

PLATE XXI (No. 50) ADMIRALTY CHART 1821

 

51 [1823] LUCAS (F.) Barbadoes. Drawn and published by F. Lucas jr., Baltimore. 23 x 29 cms.

In: A general atlas containing distinct maps of all the known countries in the world. Baltimore  [1823].

In: A new general atlas of the West India Islands, Baltimore [1824].

PLATE XXII (No. 51) LUCAS 1823
CaribMap

 

52 1827 BARRALIER (F. DE) [Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados] Engraved by J. & C. Walker, London, 1st June, 1825. Published by Capt. Barralier, June. 1827. 6 sheets, 115 x146 cms.

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1827 – Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados
The JCB Library (John Carter Brown)

 

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1825 - Trigonometrical Survey of BarbadosUCL - Legacies of British Slave-ownershipThe National Archives - Kew

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1825 – Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados
UCL – Legacies of British Slave-ownership
The National Archives – Kew

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1825 - Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados with an overlay showing details of 109 of the 416 estatesUCL - Legacies of British Slave-ownershipThe National Archives - Kew

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1825 – Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados
with an overlay showing details of 109 of the 416 estates
UCL – Legacies of British Slave-ownership
The National Archives – Kew

(No. 52) BALLALIER (F. DE) 1825 – Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados
with an overlay showing details of 109 of the 416 estates
UCL – Legacies of British Slave-ownership
The National Archives – Kew

The above map on the UCL – Legacies of British Slave-ownership website uses a copy of the 1825 Ballailer Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados that has been georeferenced. This is what Rachel Lang of UCL – Legacies of British Slave-ownership project told us:

The 1825 Barrallier Trigonometrical Survey of Barbados has been georeferenced to correct inaccuracies in the original map (you can see that the distances in the north of the islands are consistently shorter than Barrallier’s measurements). The map was then superimposed on a transparent satellite image so that the location of the 109 estates are located in their true postion.

 

53 1828 NORIE (J. W.) The Island of Barbadoes. revised.  A New Edition, London, January lst, 1828. 47 X 63 ½ cms.

Inset: Plan Of Carlisle Bay; and appearance of North Point and Pelican Island. Despite the title this appears to be the first edition.

PLATE XXIII (no. 53) NORIE 1828
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell

 

54 1828-57 ADMIRALTY CHART. Barbados. Charles Wilson, late J. W. Norie & CO., London, March 31, 1857. 44½  x 63½  cms.

A slightly altered re-issue of the 1828 Norie.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

55 1835 SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION 0F USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. Barbados settled 1605. 6 X 5 cms.

Inset on a sheet entitled: The British Islands in the West Indies. 39½ x 31½  cms. (containing 15 maps and insets) Published 1st March 1835 by Baldwin & Cradock, London. Engraved by J. & C. Walker.

In: S.D.U.K. A series of maps, modern and ancient under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge [1829-35]. Other issues: 1844, 1845, 1848, 1852, 1853, 1860, 1871.

(No. 55) SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 1835
Geographicus Antique Maps

 

56 1847 WALSH (Blayney Wm.) Plan of the City of Bridgetown, Barbados, engraved Jas. Gardner. London. 93½ x 89 cms.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

57 1847 SCHOMBURGK (SIR ROBERT H.) A Topographical Map of the Island of Barbados Based upon Mayo’s Original Survey in 1721 and corrected to the Year 1846. 127 x 99 cms. Edward Stanford, London, 1847.

Inset: Section across the Island. Sir Robert Schomburgk was the author of the standard history of Barbados published in 1848.

(No. 57) SCHOMBURGK (SIR ROBERT H.) 1847
Norman B. Leventhal Map & Education Center

 

58 [1850] MAYOCK (l. D.) Geological Map of Barbados. This is the first geological map of the Island. 20½ x 19  cms.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

M  1851 WARD (W. C. ) Lt.Col. Plan of Carlisle Bay Barbados

The existence of the following is not recorded either by Shilstone or by Campbell in their lists of the printed maps of Barbados:

1851. Ward, W. C. Plan of Carlisle Bay, Barbados. Shewing the City of Bridgetown, the Harbour, Bay, Road, 8: Garrison of St. Ann’s. 29 x 40 cm. [On sheet with] Plan shewing the Proposed Harbour of Refuge at Bridgetown, Barbados. 21 x 40 cm. J. Arrowsmith, Litho.

In: Gt. Brit. The Reports made for the year 1850 to the Secretary of State having the department of the Colonies; in continuation of the Reports annually made by the Governors of the British Colonies, with a view to exhibit generally the past and present state of Her Majesty’s colonial possessions. Transmitted with the Blue Books for the year 1850. London: William Clowes for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1851.

Official reference: 1851 [1427] xxiv.

Reprinted by Irish Universities Press in Vol. 6 of its “Colonies.- General” series of British parliamentary papers.

Lt.-Col. W. C. Ward commanded the Royal Engineers, West Indies, and the plans are “signed” by him, the former on 7 May 1851 and the latter on 26 April and 7 May 1851. The plans illustrate a proposal to create a harbour of refuge and a coaling wharf, which would have entailed deepening the mouth of the Careenage by some 15 feet, removing a mangrove swamp from the River Road area and diverting the Constitution River. Convicts sentenced to hard labour were to carry out the work. The Secretary of State, while recognizing the value of the proposed facilities, offered no hope that her Majesty’s Government might finance the scheme.

The copy on which this description is based, an example of the original issue, was partially hand-coloured.

Lt. Col. WARD (W. C.) Plan of Carlisle Bay Barbados 1851

 

Lt. Col. WARD (W. C.) Plan of Carlisle Bay Barbados – 1851 detail

 

Lt. Col. WARD (W. C.) Plan of Carlisle Bay Barbados – 1851 detail

 

Lt. Col. WARD (W. C.) Plan of Carlisle Bay Barbados – 1851 detail

 

59 1856 ADMIRALTY CHART. West Indies, Barbados from various authorities, engraved by J. & C. Walker.  Published at the Hydrographical Office July 31st, 1856. 48 x 62 cms.

(No. 59) ADMIRALTY CHART 1856
Wikimedia Commons

 

60 1859 TAYLOR (A.) A Topographical Map of the Island of Barbados based on the survey taken by William Mayo, in 1721, corrected and improved to 1859, engraved by L. Becker.  London, January lst, 1859. 69½  x 89 cms.

Inset: Two silhouettes of the island.

(No. 60) TAYLOR (A.) 1859
British Library

 

1860 REICHEL, LEVIN T. map of Barbados published by Expedition der Missions-Verwaltung (Herrnhut)

German mapmaker Levin T Reichel 1860 map of Barbados published by Expedition der Missions-Verwaltung (Herrnhut)
The University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC)

 

61 1870 WELLER (E.) A Topographical Map of the Island of Barbados. Based on the Survey Taken by William Mayo in 1721. 43 x 28 cms. Lithographed by Edward Weller, Red Lion Square, London. Bowen & Sons, Booksellers, Barbados, 1870. ‘

The only recorded copy of this is in the possession of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

62 1871 ADMIRALTY CHART. West Indies – Barbados. Carlisle Bay. Surveyed by Staff Commander J. Parsons and Navg. Lieuts. H. R. Harris and G. Stanley, RN. 1869. London, 5 April, 1871. 63½ x98 cms.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

63 1873 ADMIRALTY CHART Preliminary Chart. West Indies. Barbados surveyed by Staff Commander J. Parsons, R.N. Assisted by Navigating Lieuts. H. R. Harris & G. Stanley, RN, 1869. 64½ x 97½  cms. Published at the Admiralty, 7th April, 1873.

(The inland details are incomplete, notably in the hilly N.E.).

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

64 1873 ADMIRALTY CHART Barbados. Surveyed by Staff Commander J. Parsons, RN. Assisted by Navigating Lieuts. H. R. Harris and G. Stanley. RN, 1869.  Admiralty, London, 26th Feb., 1873. 64½ x 98 cms.

Inset: Silhouettes, View from the North West, View from the Southward.

This is the completed version of the above, and as the Preliminary chart post- dates this we may assume that one of the dates is a mis-print. This was a complete survey of the coasts and inland regions of Barbados, the Island agreeing to pay the cost of the land survey, which was the first since Mayo’s of 1721. The hydrographic survey was the first ever of the Island and previously soundings had only been shown for Carlisle and Oistin Bays.

PLATE XXIV (No. 64) ADMIRALTY CHART 1873
Photo from: “The Printed Maps of Barbados” – Tony Campbell

 

S52 1887 Island of Barbados.  In The Barbados Business and General Directory for 1887 . . . By Gabriel Anciaux, Editor, Proprietor, Charles Packer Bowen, co-editor, Publisher, Barbados, 1887. 12½ X 16½ ins

An outline map drawn and printed by the cyclostyle by G. Anciaux, showing the division of the parishes, the railroad, and main public roads, bays and features of the coastline.

[No image sourced – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

 

S53 1890 HARRISON and JUKES-BROWNE (J. B. &  A. J) F.G.S Geological Map of Barbados. Based on the survey made for the Admiralty by Staff Commander J. Parsons R.N. in 1869. Scale 1 1-3 ins. to a mile or 3960 feet to an inch. 25½ X 38½ inches. 

This is the small Parsons map coloured so as to show the geological features of the Island, with an Index of colours indicating alluvium and blown sand, coral lime-stone, oceanic deposits, and the Scotland series. White lines indicating faults, red lines contours. The dip or inclination of strata shown by arrows.

(No.S53) HARRISON and JUKES-BROWNE 1890 (J.B & A.J.) 1890

 

S54 1895 Bridgetown and Suburbs. Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London, 1895. Scale 504 ft. [ = 1 inch.] 25 X 21 ins. 

In a bound volume containing six plans of the city and suburbs showing general information regarding population, water works, fire appliances, prevailing winds, and height above sea level, as a guide to underwriters of fire insurance on the buildings within the areas.

Volume in the possession of the Agents of the Alliance Insurance Co. , Bridgetown in 1938

[No image sourced for sheets 1, 3 or 6 – please contact Jim Webster via the BajanThings Contact Burts link to assist]

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London - Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 2 of 6British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 2 of 6
British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London - Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 4 of 6British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 4 of 6
British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London - Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 5 of 6British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 5 of 6
British Library

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 2 of 6
British Library

 

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 4 of 6
British Library

 

Chas. F. Goad, Civil Engineer; London – Bridgetown and Suburbs 1895 Sheet 5 of 6
British Library

 

Barbados Railway Maps – 1877 to 1937

The stations included:

  • Bridgetown – 0 km (0.0 mi)
  • Rouen – 4.0 km (2½ mi)
  • Bulkley – 8.9 km (5½ mi)
  • Windsor – 11.3 km (7 mi)
  • Branch to Crane – 14.3 km (8⅞ mi)
  • Carrington – 14.5 km (9 mi)
  • Sunbury – 16.1 km (10 mi)
  • Bushy Park – 17.7 km (11 mi)
  • Three Houses – 20.9 km (13 mi)
  • Bath – 25.7 km (16 mi)
  • Bathsheba – 32.2 km (20 mi)
  • St. Andrew’s (Belleplaine) – 38.6 km (24 mi)

 

Barbados Railway – Source uknown

 

1914 Barbados map showing the railway route and stations. This map which was published in the 1914 book “LIFE AND ADVENTURE IN THE WEST INDIES”

 

Map pf Barbados showing Railway published “The Pocket Guide to the West Indies” 1923 by A. Aspinall

 

Barbados Map from Handbook of Barbados -1912

Barbados Map from Handbook of Barbados -1912

Barbados Map showing the Railway Line – taken from Handbook of Barbados -1912
Digital Archive McMaster University Library

 

W. 1960. Directorate of Overseas Surveys (D.O.S.), 1958. Barbados.
D.O.S. 418 (Series E. 749) 1:50,000 Crown Copyright 1960
Complied from Barbados 1:10,000 (D.O.S. 18), First Edition 1955 – 56.
Agents for this map are: Edward Stanford Ltd., 12/14, Long Acre, London, W.C.2. Price 3/6 net. Copies may also be obtained from the Chief Secretary’s Office, Bridgetown, Barbados. Price 85 cents.

This map is possibly one of the last maps to show the sugar plantations and factories prior to many being sold for residential and industrial development which began to become prevalent in the late 1960’s and the 1970’s. As sugar production dropped factories consolidated and many were closed in subsequent years.

Barbados 1:50,000. D.O.S. 418 (Series E.749) First Edition – D.O.S. Published by Directorate for Overseas Surveys. © Crown Copyright 1960. Printed by D.O.S. by the Ordnance Survey. Constructed, drawn and photographed by Directorate for Overseas Surveys, 1958 (D.O.S. 18). Compiled from Barbados 1:10,000 (D.O.S. 18), First Edition 1955-56.
Magnetic variation given for April 1953.
The University of Texas at Austin

 

 

PREFACE to The Printed Maps of Barbados

by Tony Campbell 1965

BARBADOS and sugar are two concepts inseparable to anybody not born a Barbadian and there is a long tradition behind this. When Richard Ligon arrived on Barbados in 1647, only 20 years after the first settlement he found “that the great work of sugar-making, was but newly practised by the inhabitants there.”1 In fact the ship which had dropped the first settlers carried on to Guiana where various plants considered suitable for the island were collected and with them the Indians to instruct the settlers in their cultivation. Among these was the sugar cane. “At the time of our arrival there,” writes Ligon, “we found many Sugarworks set up, and at work; but yet the Sugars they made, were but bare Muscavadoes, and few of them Merchantable commodities; so moist, and full of mollossos, and so ill-cur’d, as they were hardly worth the bringing home for England.” But by the time he left the Island in 1650 he could report that, “this commodity, Sugar, hath gotten so much the start of all the rest of those, that were held the staple Commodities of the Iland, and so much over-top’t them, as they are for the most part slighted and neglected.”2

This rapid development can be seen recorded in the early maps of the Island. Ligon’s map [No. 1, see plate I] made about 1650 is a sketchy affair showing plantations along one side of the island only, because at this time there was still thick forest over the remainder. By the time of Ford’s survey [No. 8, see plate V] made between 1676 and 1680 almost the entire island had been brought under cultivation.

Barbados’ other peculiarity is that it was first settled by the English and has remained a British possession ever since. Barbados is very proud of this fact. In 1813 in Trafalgar Square, Bridgetown, a statue of Nelson was erected, the second to be raised to his memory in the Empire. It also has an established Church and to this day the administrative divisions of the island are the eleven parishes set up in 1645.

Of the early history of Barbados we can learn more from maps than from the printed accounts. The earliest written mention of Barbados appears in the Instructions which Charles V sent, in 1518, to Figueroa in Hispaniola to ameliorate the condition of the mine-working Indians from Trinidad and from “la lsla de los Barbudos.” From manuscript maps, however, we can see that Barbados was known to the Spaniards at least 10 years before this. The world map drawn by Columbus’ pilot Juan de la Cosa in 15003 (though probably added to until 1508) shows that the Spaniards had a fairly clear idea of the general line of the Antilles. The Cantino world map of 1502 testifies to the Portuguese being less advanced in their knowledge of the West Indies as it only shows the Northern Antilles as far as Guadeloupe. This omission of the islands between Tobago and Guadeloupe was common on printed maps until the later sixteenth century.

The first named instance of Barbados appears in the Egerton M.S. map in the British Museum.4 It was based on Portuguese or Spanish information and is thought to have been made in 1508. These manuscripts, maps and charts were zealously protected from the gaze of foreigners who might have used the Information to upset their trade empires in the New World.

It was not until 1544 in a mappe-monde ascribed to Cabot5 and published probably in Belgium or Germany that Barbados first appears on a printed map, as ‘Ya del: Bernaldo.’

Barbados has been variously named; on the earlier maps it appears as, St. Bernardo, Bernados, Barbudoso, Baruados, Barnodos, etc. and to this variety is added the confusing presence, just to the north of Antigua, of another island, Barbuda, whose similar sounding names have often been indistinguishable from those used to denote Barbados. On Coronelli’s map, “Archipelague du Mexique” (c. 1690), Barbados is labelled “Is. Barbados ou Barboude et la Barbade”, while Barbuda is “Barbuda et 1. Barbada ou I. Barboude” (see Plate XXV). In view of this linguistic uncertainty it is not surprising that during the early proprietary struggles the case could be put forward, and legally upheld that the other island had been referred to in the grant of title, and not Barbados at all.

The derivation of the name is obscure; some maintain it is in honour of St. Bernard, others that it is the Portuguese or Spanish word for beard, a reference either to bearded Indians or to an indigenous species of fig-tree whose downward plunging roots seemed like a beard. The Egerton map calls it La Barbata (and the other island simply Barbata) which suggests that the latter theory is more probable, and the St. Bernardo merely a pious alteration later, popularised by Ortelius, Mercator, Blaeu, etc.

During the sixteenth century Barbados must have been often visited by the Portuguese on their way to Brazil and the Spanish ships plying between Hispaniola and Trinidad. The hogs which were found by the first settlers running wild all over the island were supposedly left there by the Portuguese as a surety against starvation should they be wrecked there.

According to Purchas Barbados was first visited by the English in 1605, “Sir Oliph Leagh, a worshipfull Knight of Kent, sending a supply of good numbers of men in a Ship called the Oliph blossome . . . we were faine to touch first at the Isle of Barbudos, and then at Santa Luzia in the West Indies.”6 This occurs in an account by John Nicholl, but since he did not mention Barbados in his original version of this,7 published some years before, we must doubt it.

They did not settle and it was not until 20 years later that one of the Dutch ships licensed to trade with Brazil landed there and took back a favourable account which was passed on to Sir William Courteen, a London merchant. It would perhaps be as well to describe here the nature of the island they found. It was 21 miles long and 14½ broad, or roughly the size of the Isle of Wight. Encircled by coral reefs there was only one natural harbour – Carlisle Bay – but it provided adequate shelter for many ships. Inland was dense forest populated only by hogs running everywhere wild. The native population had been carried off to the Spanish mines. The climate was mild. It must have been an attractive prospect and after one of Courteen’s own ships had landed there about 1624 and confirmed this, in 1627 he mounted an expedition and, sending out between 40 and 80 settlers (accounts differ on this as on most other significant details) landed them at “the Hole” (now Holetown). In the same year Charles I rescinded the original agreement which had promised the Island to Courteen and granted Letters Patent to Lord Carlisle of all the “Caribee Islands.” This was the beginning of the proprietary struggles that were to mar the first 35 years of the Island’s history. Carlisle, a spendthrift, leased 10,000 acres to some London merchants, which Ligon records on his map (see No. 1, Plate 1) “the term Thousande acres of Lande which Belongeth to the Merchants of London.” They sent out as first Governor, Charles Wolferstone, who arrived in 1628 with about 70 settlers and, landing at a place where there was an old Indian bridge over a stream (later to become Bridgetown, the capital) established himself in opposition to the rival faction at Holetown, and the stalemate was only ended when Carlisle sent out another man with sufficient force to command authority.

In 1639, from diplomatic rather than democratic motives, a Parliament was set up, the second oldest in the Empire. During the Civil War, the Island, under its Governor, Lord Willoughby, declared for the King. (The English) Parliament sent out a punitive expedition which forced a surrender though on terms that guaranteed the Island’s rights. At the Restoration the settlers’ fears about the illegality of their land titles were set at rest by the reversion of Barbados to the Crown, but the price of this was a 4½ % tax on exports, only revoked in 1838.

Barbados has always been an English possession, but in 1665 it was very nearly lost to the Dutch admiral, de Ruyter. Thereafter, and more particularly after the first English soldiers arrived in 1695 at the Island’s request to mount a garrison and build a chain of forts round the coast, the only threats came from taxation, the disruption of their export trade in times of war, the fires which periodically destroyed Bridgetown and the inevitable hurricanes.

For the rest the Barbadians could meditate on the qualities of sugar: “As rich as a Barbados planter”, was soon a simile for Croesus in England, and one eighteenth century authority even credited it with health-giving powers,

If Sugar can preserve both Peares and Plums,
Why can it not preserve as well our Lungs?

This check-list owes a considerable debt to E. M. Shilstone, whose “A Descriptive list of Maps of Barbados“, published in 1938 under the authority of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, mentions two maps which are not included here as there is insufficient proof that they were ever published:

  • The first is cited on the evidence that in 1792 the Barbados Legislature licensed the publication of a map by Ely Leach, Surveyor.
  • The other is a map by William C. Hope of Bridgetown, advertised for sale in the Barbadian Newspaper of October 11th,1834. There is no trace of either of these maps.

 

 

Preface footnotes:

1 Ligon (R.) A True & Exact History of the Island of Barbados, 1657.

2 Idem.

3 Reproduced in: Kretschmer, Entdeckung Amerika’s, Atlas, Berlin 1892, Plate 7.

4 Reproduced in: Imago Mundi, a Review of Early Cartography, Vol. XV, p. 28.

5 Reproduced in: Kretschmer, Entdeckung Amerika’s, Atlas, Berlin, 1892, Plate 16.

6 Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas his Pilgrimes. 1625.

7 Nichol] (John) An hour-glasse of Indian Newes, 1607.

 

Further Notes on the Printed Maps of Barbados

Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society – Vol. XLV

By Alan Moss

The authoritative guide to Barbados” printed maps is Tony Campbell’s 1965 publication in the Map Collectors’ Series, The printed maps of Barbados and in its preface Campbell acknowledged his “considerable debt” to E.M. Shilstone’s “A descriptive list of maps of Barbados” which appeared in the Society’s Journal in 1933 (actually 1938). During the course of research on the smaller of the two Bellin maps of Barbados (Campbell, 34 – 35) the results of which were published in the 1993 issue of this journal, I became aware that while Shilstone and Campbell, and especially the latter, provide a very considerable body of information on the subject, not surprisingly there are still additions, refinements and corrections which can be made, to their findings. During the past five or six years. therefore, I have made an effort to examine as many as possible of the maps recorded in Campbell with a view to corroborating or, where the evidence wants it, revising the descriptions given. It should be noted that my approach to this study has been primarily cartobibliographical, i.e. my purpose has been to establish and record the facts of publication surrounding these maps; the information provided in the maps has been of only peripheral interest.

In this article the maps recorded at Campbell, 1- 33 are considered. Since Campbell provides the bedrock for this research, the numbers and headings assigned to the maps in his work have been retained and indeed the intention is that the article be read in conjunction with Campbell’s work.

The assistance and encouragement which Tony Campbell has invariably offered when I have been able to meet with him in the British Library’s Map Library, where he is Map Librarian, is most gratefully acknowledged.

In addition to the British Library’s, collections consulted during the course of this research have included those of the Library of Congress; the Bancroft Library; the Main Library, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus; and the Barbados Museum and Historical Society.  Particular mention must be made of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University, however, where for two weeks in May 1996 I was privileged to secure an attachment as a Library Fellow.  The depth of that library’s resources ensured that the time spent there was extraordinarily productive.

 

SELECTED LIST OF DATES

  • 1508 First named appearance of Barbados, on the Egerton M.S. map
  • 1518 Charles V’s Instructions to Figueroa about the condition of the Indians from “La Isla de los Barbudos”
  • 1544 Cabot mappemonde. First appearance of Barbados on a printed map.
  • 1605 An English ship, the Olive Blossom, forced to land
  • 1624 Visited by a ship belonging to Sir William Courteen
  • 1627 Another of Courteen’s ships lands the first settlers at “the Hole”
  • 1628 Wolferstone comes out as first Governor and establishes a rival settlement at Indian Bridge (later Bridgtown)
  • 1639 Parliament set up
  • 1645 Island divided into 11 Parishes
  • 1647 Richard Ligon lands on Barbados
  • 1650 Royalist Lord Willoughby, Governor. Parliament sends out an expedition
  • 1665 De Ruyter fails to take the Island
  • 1676-80 First survey of Barbados by Richard Ford
  • 1695 First English soldiers come
  • 1717-21 Mayo’s survey
  • 1730 Printing press set up
  • 1780 Worst hurricane in Barbados’ history, 4,000 killed
  • 1869-73 First modern survey, by the Admiralty

 

 

INDEX TO MAP-MAKERS, PRINTERS AND ENGRAVERS

The numbers relate to the map reference  number (No. #).

Admiralty 50, 54, 59, 62, 63, 64 Lopez 39
Allen 44 Lucas 51
André 41 Luffman 46
Baldwin 42 Maycock 58
Baldwin and Cradoek 55 Mayo 21, 32, 38, 57, 60, 61
Barralier 47, 48, 49, 52 Moll 18, 24
Bassett and Chiswell 5 Morden 7, 8
Becker 60 Mount 12
Bellin 33, 34, 35 Newman 4
Berry 8 Nicholls 17
Bew 43 Norie 53, 54
Blome 4 Ogilby 3
Bonne 40, 41 Overton 8
Bowen & Sons 61 Page 12
Bowen 29 Parsons 62, 63, 64
Bowles (Carington) 18 Pask 8
Bowles, T. & I. 24 Payton 50
Browne 15 Popple 25
Chatelain 19 Rossi 36
Copens 13 S.D.U.K. 55
Crépy 30 Sayer 32, 38
Davidson 12 Schomburgk 57
Delisle 27 Seller(s) 9, 11
Edwards 44 Senex 15, 21
Fisher 12 Speed 5, 6
Ford 8, 9 Stanford 57
Gardener 56 Stanley 62, 63, 64
Gibson 37 Stockdale 44
Grierson 24 Tanner 44
Harris 62, 63, 64 Taylor 60
Homann 26 Thomson 45
Hughes 31 Thornton 12
Jefferys 31, 38 Toms 25
Kip 13 Trail 28
Kirkwood 45 Van Keulen 20
Labat 22 Walker, J. and C. 52, 55, 59
Laurie and Whittle 38 Walsh 56
Le Rouge 30 Weller 61
Lea 9, 14, 16 Wells 17
Ligon 1, 2 Wilson 5
Lodge 43

 

SOURCES OF BARBADOS MAPS ON-LINE – 2020

 

 

OTHER DOCUMENTS OF INTEREST

 

 

REFERENCES: A. Moss

  • Campbell, Tony. The printed maps of Barbados. London: Map Collectors’Circle, 1965. (Map collectors’ series, 21).
  • Shilstone, E.M. “A descriptive list of maps of Barbados.” Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 5 (1932/3): 57- 84.
  • Moss, Alan. “Notes on two of the early printed maps of Barbados. ” Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 41 (1993) :
  • Wing, Donald, comp. Short-title catalogue of books… 1641-1700. 2nd ed. …New York: Modern Language Association of America,
  • Van Eerde, Katherine S. John Ogilby and the taste of his times. Folkestone: Dawson, 1976.
  • Black, Jeannette D. The Blathwayt atlas. Volume II: Commentary. Providence, RI: Brown University Press, 1975.
  • Black. Idem.
  • Tyacke, Sarah. London map-sellers, 1660-1720 : a collection of advertisements for maps placed in the London gazette, 1668-1719, with biographical notes on the map-sellers. Tring, Hens: Map Collector Publications, 1978.
  • Tyacke. Idem.
  • Phillips, Philip Lee, comp. A list of geographical atlases in the Library of Congress. Vol. I : Atlases. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909.
  • Sabin, Joseph. Bibliotheca Americana: a dictionary of books relating to America from the discovery to the present time. 1868-1936. New York: Miniprint Corporation, [1966]. 2 vols.
  • Phillips. Op. cit.

 

 

 

ADDENDUM: A. Moss – Bellin Maps No. 34 & No.35

Detailed below is the Alan Moss description of the Bellin Maps No. 34 & No.35 which was subsequently published by the Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society Vol. XLI 1993.

NOTES ON TWO OF THE EARLY PRINTED MAPS OF BARBADOS
Alan Moss
Transcribed by Jim Webster January 2020

THE SMALLER “CARTE DE I’ISLE DE LA BARBADE”,
by J.N. Bellin

The entry in Tony Campbell’s The printed maps of Barbados for the smaller “Carte de I’Isle de la Barbade” by Bellin, item 34, reads:34 1758 BELLIN (].N.) Carte de I’Isle de la Barbade. 15 x 19½ cms.

In: Description Géographique des Isles Antilles possédées par les anglois. Paris, Didot, 1758.

In: Bellin (].N.) Petit Atlas Francois Receuil de cartes et plans des quatre partie de monde (Vol. 1) 1763-4. (In this first issue the map has no volume or page numbering.)

Another issue: Lettered Tome 1. No. 98. In Bellin: Petit Atlas Maritime (Vol. 1) 1764.

Another issue: “Pour servir a I’Histoire Générale des Voyages”, added beneath the title. Along the bottom Tom. XV in 4° No. 17 and Tome 15 in 8″, page 567. In: La Harpe (J.) Abrégé de I’Histoire générale des voyages, 1780.

And the entry for the closely related item at 35 reads: 35 1758-[81] BELLIN (J.N.) Carta dell’Isola della Barbada. 15 x19½ cms. [Venice, 1781.]

I . In: Teatro della guerra maritima, Venezia, 1781.
(The map completely re-engraved, with the place names mostly in Italian.)

The simultaneous acquisition of copies of two of these variants afforded me the opportunity to compare them closely, and the small but significant differences which were observable between them prompted the desire to be able to document more fully the publishing history of the map, which in its several forms is perhaps the most common of the early printed maps of Barbados. A significant part of this research was carried out in the British Library, where Tony Campbell is Map Librarian, and I wish gratefully to acknowledge the encouragement and advice he offered during my visit to London in 1991.
I find that three further French issues can be identified, which in an approximation of Campbell’s style of entry can be described as follows:

In: Prévost d’Exiles, Antoine Francois. Histoire générale des voyages… Paris, Didot, 1746-1770. 20 vols., in 4° Lettering at bottom: Tom. XV. N° 17.In Vol. 15, published in 1759.

In: Prévost d’Exiles, Antoine Francois. Histoire générale des voyages… Nouvelle édition. La Haye, P. de Hondt, and Amsterdam, E. van Harreveldt and D. J. Changuion, 1747-1780. 25 vols, in 4°. (Vols. 1-18 published in La Haye, vols. 19-25 in Amsterdam.) Lettering at top right: Tom. XXIII. And at bottom: A.V. Krevelt, Sculps. Amsterd. 1777.
In Vol. 23, published in 1777.

In: Prévost d’Exiles, Antoine Francois. Historie générale des voyages… Paris, Didot, 1748-1789. 80 vols., in 16mo.
Lettering at bottom: Tom. XV. N° 17. In Vol. 60, published in 1759.

The following German issue was also encountered:

Karte von der Insel Barbade, zur allgemeine Geschichte der Reisen.

In: Schwabe, Johann Joachim. Allgemeine Historic der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande… Leipzig, Bey Arikstee und Merkus, 1747-1774. 21 vols., in 4°.

Lettering at top: N” 17. And at bottom: XVII Band T.17.F.

(The map completely re-engraved, with many place names in German.)
In Vol. 17, published in 1759.

The most revealing of the differences to which reference was made above concern the accuracy of the maps with regard to the placing of Maxwell and Kendall Forts and whether or not the St. John / St. Philip parish boundary is shown, for an examination of these two characteristics enables us to divide the issues into two mutually exclusive groups.

In one type, the position of “Fort Maxwel (i.e. Maxwell Fort) is accurately shown and “Fort Rendall” (i.e. Kendal Fort) is similarly correctly located. In all of these cases the St. John / St. Philip parish boundary is omitted. The first three issues in Campbell’s entry 34 are the only ones which fall into this category. (For an example of this type, see Fig. 1.)

In the second type, which extends to all other issues I have been able to examine, Maxwell Fort under the name “Fort Maxuel” has been transposed to the site of Kendal Fort, on the Enterprise coastline overlooking Oistins Bay, with the name of the latter fort being omitted from the map entirely. The parish boundary between St. John and St. Philip is present in all of these issues. (For an example of this type see the La Harpe issue at Fig. 2.)

Given that each is accurate in a respect in which the other is not, it is apparent that neither type can have been based upon the other. Each must therefore have relied upon some other source, presumably Bellin’s original work. One can also deduce, of course, that in both cases the engravers erred, although in different ways, when transcribing that work to the plate.

The only feature which serves to differentiate the three issues in the first group from each other is that noted by Campbell, the absence or presence of the lettering “Tome I. No. 98” which appears in the top right hand margin in some examples. One must question Campbell’s ascription of the lettering only to the Petit Atlas Maritime issue, however, and indeed it is open to doubt whether this was his true intent, for the note which states “In this first issue the map has no volume or page number” is placed after the the second issue he records, and so clearly something has gone awry. Certainly those copies which I have been able to identify as having been issued in the Petit Atlas Francois do bear the lettering, as well as those issued in the Petit Atlas Maritime. Tooley’s description of the Petit Atlas Maritime as a reissue of the Petit Atlas Francois would also lead one to expect this to be the case. Surprisingly, however, the presence of the lettering on a particular example does not guarantee that it was issued in one or other of the two atlases, for the maps in the University of Texas Benson Collection’s copy of Bellin’s Description geographique des Isles Antilles carry the lettering, inappropriate though it is in that publication.

There seems to be nothing to suggest that these variants were not produced from the same plate, and they may indeed therefore be regarded as issues of the same map.
The six variants which we have identified as comprising the second group, those which correctly record the St. John / St. Philip boundary but err with regard to the forts, were all published in editions of the Abbe’ Prévost’s Histoire générale des voyages or works derived in part from it, and while the necessity to engrave new plates for the Italian and German issues can be readily understood, the a priori expectation would be that the four French issues in this group would have been issued from the same plate, given the reluctance of publishers to incur the expense of re-engraving a map when an existing plate could be used. Although the two Didot editions do seem to be from the same plate, however, a significantly wider plate mark (approximately 171 mm as against the 158 mm of the Didot issues and the 161 mm of the de Hondt edition) distinguishes La Harpe from the others in the group, and the path taken by what is now Highway 6 through the word “Phillippe”, among other things, demonstrates that the Didot and de Hondt maps came from different plates.

And indeed, a knowledge of the reasons offered for the publication of de Hondt’s edition of the Histoire générale des voyages so soon after the appearance of the original makes it very apparent why in this case new plates needed to be cut. Seeking to throw doubt on the faithfulness of Prévost’s translation of the English sources from which the earlier part of the work is drawn, and indeed on the good faith of Prévost himself, the de Hondt edition went to great lengths not only to reproduce its own translation of matters omitted by Prévost but to mark them in the text, and to indicate what had been added to the original by Prévost. The publication of the two editions over a number of years afforded the opportunity for attack and counter-attack through “avertissements” in the early volumes of the work, with Prévost dismissing the Dutch edition as one in which “j’ai refusé de prendre part, & que je desavoue”. In the circumstances Didot could hardly have been expected to make its plates available to de Hondt.

It is apparent, then, that it was from the Didot plate that the earliest examples of this second type were produced, and that all other plates of this type were copied from it, either directly or via an intermediary. Since the earliest issue of the first type, in Bellin’s Description géographique des Isles Antilles, also emanated from Didot we are forced to address the question of why it should have been found necessary to engrave what we may assume were intended to be two identical plates of the same map within’ a year or so of each other for use by the same prlnter.

The answer may lie in the status of the Description géographique, which was published “Par ordre de M. Le Marquis de Massiac, Lieutenant Général des Armeés Navales”, and is regarded as an official publication of the Depot des Cartes et Plans de la Marine. It seems plausible to suggest that the official nature of the publication may have limited Didot’s right to use the material it contained, necessitating the production of a second plate which could be used commercially.

Other editions of the Histoire générale which might have been expected to include further issues of Bellin’s map are the Madrid edition”, the Dresden edition“ and the Dutch translation which de Hondt published. I have found no evidence that any of them does so, however. Although some authorities ascribe an atlas to the Madrid edition Sabin, for instance, does not, and the apology in’ the Pro’logo to that edition for the absence of maps and illustrations, even though qualified by the hope that they may be published at some future date, tends to support his view. The Dresden edition does not appear to have progressed beyond vol. 16 despite the publisher’s stated intention that it should, and therefore does not include a section on the West Indies; and the Historische Beschryving der Reizen, as Sabin notes, was a translation of the first 17 volumes only of de Hondt’s French-language edition, and again, therefore, does not treat of the West Indies.

If a list of the printed maps of Barbados should accord a separate entry to each plate from which maps have been pulled, then six entries are needed to encompass the variants that have so far been identified of the smaller Bellin: one to cover the first three issues listed at item 34 in Campbell; one for the Italian issue listed in Campbell at 35; one for the two Didot issues of the ‘ Histoire générale des voyages; and one each for the Schwabe, de Hondt and La Harpe issues.

 

(No. 34) BELLIN (J.N.) 1758
Barbados Museum and Historical Society Vol. XLI 1993

 

(No. 35) BELLIN (J.N.) 1781
Barbados Museum and Historical Society Vol. XLI 1993

 

 

 

ADDENDUM: Dutch publishers – Covens and Mortier

Covens and Mortier (1721 – c. 1862). The Amsterdam publishing firm of Covens and Mortier was the successor to the extensive publishing empire built by Frenchman Pierre Mortier (1661 – 1711).

Upon Mortier’s death in 1711 his firm was taken over by his son, Cornelius Mortier (1699 – 1783). Cornelius married the sister of Johannes Covens (1697 – 1774) in 1821 and, partnering with his brother in law, established the Covens and Mortier firm. Under the Covens and Mortier imprint, Cornelius and Pierre republished the works of the great 17th and early 18th century Dutch and French cartographers De L’Isle, Allard, Jansson, De Wit, and Ottens among others. They quickly became one of the largest and most prolific Dutch publishing concerns of the 18th century.

The firm and its successors published thousands of maps over a 120 year period from 1721 to the mid-1800s. During their long lifespan the Covens and Mortier firm published as:

  • Covens and Mortier (1721-1778)
  • J. Covens and Son (1778 – 94)
  • Mortier, Covens and Son (1794 – c. 1862).

 

Sourcing: missing maps, additional maps and map images

If you can help source images of any of the maps where there is no image or would like to suggest maps of Barbados that should have been included in “The Printed Maps of Barbados 1500 – 1900”  please contact  me by either leaving a comment below or clicking on the  BajanThings Contact Burts link and choosing from the Subject drop-down: “Barbados Maps – Forward to: Jim Webster”.

Many thanks

Jim Webster
15th February 2020.

 

 

A video compilation of all the maps:

Source